Monday, March 06, 2017

Good Earthing Prevents Shocks

Good Earthing or Grounding is needed for Human Safety it also Prolongs Appliance Life. Earthing in the olden days was done like this, i have just mixed what i have heard with my common sense and this is what it may be.

Do it professionally, do it with the help of qualified Electrical Engineers. Do not cut costs here.

Make a deep pit, 4 feet deep, 1/2 feet dia, put long copper rods ( GI pipes or lead pipes were also used). Let the copper rods be driven deeper than the four feet that has been dug. mesh the rods with copper mesh or wire (GI chicken mesh). Fill the pit with all the conductive things which are bio-degradable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and non-soluble. They used coal, charcoal, salt, scrap metals. (now they have a polymer conductive gel). Terminate the copper rods to a thick copper wire run it to your mains box in a way it cannot be cut or broken when gardening etc.

Good Earthing Prevents Shocks

The mains box should be fitted with HRC fuses and MCBs as required, use a ELCB too. The MCB trips when a over current load is drawn, there are both thermal (thermostat technology) and electromagnetic (relay technology) MCBs. The ELCB does not have a earth wire, it trips when the current in the live and neutral paths are unequal. When the difference is say 20mA it trips. This 20mA would have gone thru the ground wire or thru a person giving shock. Also use Over Voltage and Under Voltage Trips if possible, Many equipment fail due to this.
  • HRC -- High Rupture Capacity.
  • MCB -- Miniature Circuit Breaker.
  • ELCB -- Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker.
  • GI -- Galvanized Iron
Also do not forget a lightning rod on the top of the house, whose path to ground is far from the earth pit. Lightning also zaps phones etc. Use Zener barriers for all interfaces between equipment and isolation transformers.

Earthing system

Cable TV wires, phone wires, and mains wires all may get mixed up. During rainy days even a phone line or TV cable may give shock or blow input circuits in equipment. This may be due to mains leakage or lightning.

Before you touch any metal object, cross your fingers, better still buy a long neon tester.

delabs Technologies - EE Notes

    Sunday, March 05, 2017

    DC Circuits - University of Guelph

    Start with the Basics like ohms law, resistors, voltage current. Learn the math and equations too.

    Schematic Diagrams, Complicated Circuits, Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Current Law, Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, Resistors in Series, Resistors in Parallel.

    DC Circuits - University of Guelph

    DC Circuits - University of Guelph

    Physics Tutorial Menu - Dimensional Analysis, Graphing Oscillating Fns, Torque and Rotational Motion, Simple Harmonic Motion.

    Friday, March 03, 2017

    Phoenix Science Experiments

    Phoenix allows you to develop science experiments  by connecting  sensor / control elements to a computer and access them through software.

    Phoenix Science Experiments

    Phoenix depends heavily on Python language. The data acquisition, analysis and writing simulation programs to teach science and computation.

    Different sensors elements can be interfaced and accessed by few lines of Pythoncode. Phoenix utilizes the power of personal computers for experiment control, data acquisition and its mathematical analysis.

    Phoenix Science Experiments

    PMDK is an easy-to-use, low cost micro-controller development system. The hardware consists of an ATmega16MCU, LCD display and regulated DC supply. All the I/O pins of the MCU are available on sockets.

    The instrument is designed using locally available low cost components and the design is freely available for commercial production. Design supports hardware plug-in modules for expansion. Phoenix is developed using Free Software tools.

    The serial and USB versions can be easily interfaced to a PC. They can also be programmed through the serial/USB ports after uploading a bootloader program to ATmega16.

    Sunday, February 12, 2017

    Tektronix Test and Measurement Equipment

    Tektronix electronic test, measurement and monitoring equipment. Tektronix, Inc. is a United States corporation best known for its test and measurement equipment such as oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and video and mobile test protocol equipment. Tek is the nickname by which Tektronix is known to its employees, customers, and neighbors.

    Tektronix: Applications XYZs of Oscilloscopes

    Oscilloscopes are indispensable tools for anyone designing, manufacturing or repairing electronic equipment. In today's fast-paced world, engineers need the best tools available to solve their measurement challenges quickly and accurately.

    Tektronix Test and Measurement Equipment
    MSO/DPO Series Mixed Signal Oscilloscope Virtual Product Demo

    The company traces its roots to the electronics revolution that immediately followed World War II. The company's founders C. Howard Vollum and Melvin J. "Jack" Murdock invented the world's first triggered oscilloscope in 1946, a significant technological breakthrough. Tektronix, Inc. - Wikipedia

    Additional Reading
    Tektronix Oscilloscopes Museum

    This site contains photos, specs, material and stories about tube built Tektronix oscilloscopes up to the late 60´s. The reasons of outstanding quality and inspired engineering of these classic scopes formed the basis of the worldwide reputation of Tektronix.

    Contents

    Basic Electronics
    Basics of Electronics
    Product Production
    Work Discipline
    Testing Points
    Learning Electronics
    Electronics Theory

    Production Notes
    Prototype Fabrication
    Electrical Circuits
    Electromechanical


    Library
    Scots Guide Electronics
    Engineering - Wikibooks
    Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
    DC Circuits UOG
    Socratic Electronics
    Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


    Product Design
    Product Development
    Constant Current Source
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Insulation Resistance
    Digital Insulation Tester
    DN Schematic PCB 04
    DN Product Design 07


    Hobby Circuits
    VU Meter Circuits
    LED brightness control
    555 Incredible Chip
    Process Control
    liquid level measurement
    Thermocouples and RTD
    Design ADC Interface uC
    Thermocouple Amplifier
    IA Instrumentation 02
    Temperature on DMM
    Optical Proximity Switch
    Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


    Test Measurement
    Instrumentation Automation
    NI Test and Measurement
    DMM Digital Multi Meter
    Oscilloscope in T&M
    IA Automation 01
    Build Instruments
    Tektronix T&M Equipment
    Educators Corner – Agilent


    Power Electronics
    UPS Background
    Transformer Connections
    DN Power Electronics 03
    DN Power Electronics 02
    Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


    Embedded
    Interfacing Microcontrollers
    Embedded Process Control
    80C31 8052 Microcontroller
    Microprocessors and uC
    Embedded Systems Design

    Components
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Relays and Contactors
    Potentiometers Trimpots
    Prototype Boards Types
    Types of Capacitors
    Types of Switches
    Resistors How they Work
    Coils Transformers SMPS
    Mains Transformers Types
    DN Components Selection 05

    Tutor Gadgets
    Count-Up Timer
    Digital Logic Gates
    Electronics Tutors

    History
    Teaching Instruments
    Charles Proteus Steinmetz
    Muntzing a Circuit Design
    Teralab Electronics projects
    Historical Instruments


    Tables, Charts, Videos
    Binary and Hex
    Resistor Color Code
    Ohms Law
    Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
    High Resistance Materials

    Analog
    School - Analog Design
    DN Analog Basics 06
    DN Op-Amps 01
    TI Semiconductors