Saturday, November 12, 2016

Active Filter Design with OpAmps

This is yet another Application Note of Exar found in- "Applications Data Book" June 1981. The Seven Scanned Pages as attachments can be viewed and studied at …

The availability of low cost dual or quad operational amplifier IC's have made the operational amplifier based active filter techniques cost effective over conventional passive filters. The recent availability of programmable quad operational amplifiers such as the XR-4202 or the XR-346 have provided the active filter designer with the flexibility to externally program gain-bandwidth product, supply current, input bias current, input offset current, input noise and the slew rate.

Application Note - AN-03 - Active Filter Design with IC Op-Amps

Active Filter Design with OpAmps

This application note is intended to familiarize the filter designer with the fundamentals of active filter design, using monolithic IC op amps. It presents a table of transfer functions and network equations for high-pass, low-pass, band-pass and band-reject filters. Several design examples are given to illustrate the respective merits and limitations of various filter configurations. Particular emphasis is given to applications of programmable quad operational amplifiers, such as the XR-4202, as an active filter element in FSK Modems.

Thursday, November 10, 2016

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor and Simulator

Draw and print beautiful schematics for lab reports. In-browser simulations make it easy to quickly learn electronics concepts. No need to Install, it is a Online Web Application !

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor & Simulator

Test and Simulate circuit ideas before breadboarding. SPICE-like models with a mixed-mode simulation engine help you apply one tool to a wide range of design tasks, from digital to analog, DC to VHF and beyond.

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor and Simulator

BJT Cascoded Active-load Differential Amplifier with CMFB

Build non-op-amp Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) - This kind of high-gain differential input stage might be useful as part of an op-amp, but it's a bit silly to include an op-amp within a stage another op-amp......

Some Examples
  • 555 Timer as Oscillator / PWM Generator
  • 7805 & Wall-wart Experiencing Voltage Drop-out
  • Digital 4-bit counter and DAC
  • Diode full-wave (bridge) rectifier
  • Laplace transform step response and Bode plot
  • LED with resistor biasing
  • MOSFET switching inductive load
  • Op-Amp inverting / non-inverting amplifier
  • RLC resonance
  • Zener diode voltage reference

Friday, November 04, 2016

Electromagnetic Spectrum - Wavelengths

"Some insects, like bees, can see light of shorter wavelengths than humans can see."

This is something to Buzz about. This chart is excellent, a Pictogram. A small image with a Graphical, Complete and Concise expression of a Scientific Truth.

Electromagnetic Spectrum - Berkeley Lab

Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes-- visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and radio waves that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.....

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Measuring the electromagnetic spectrum

Faraday cages are structures - as small as a shoebox or as big as a building - that protect what's inside from surrounding electromagnetic radiation (EM).

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Faraday Cage

Here is a Electromagnetic Spectrum Chart from Sura.org - Southeastern Universities Research Association.

Friday, October 14, 2016

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Mains Power means the 230 V AC 50 Hz or 110 V AC 60 Hz in some countries, The lower power line like 5A is used for small lamps and fans. The higher power line 15A is used to drive the High Power Electrical Appliances like Heaters and Motors. This is a single phase supply.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Single phase Supply in layman language means a Live, a Neutral and an optional earth. The earthing is a must in every building along with lightning protection. The Neutral is a close to earth potential, The live can give a shock to a man who is in contact with earth at some part of the human body. So great care has to be taken. This live wire or point can be easily checked by a quality standards approved Neon Tester.

Voltmeter and Ammeter

Three phase supply - there are three Live wires, used in factorys and apartments to power bigger loads and Motors. A 3 phase AC motor is very efficient and economical and most machines like Drills and Lathes are powered by AC Motors. 3 phase supply becomes essential for industry.

The voltage is transmitted and supplied to houses at a high level in comparison to low level of batteries. This High Voltage is not safe but Inevitable, as transmitting at lower voltage means greater current carrying requirements of wires and connectors. That leads to more copper or aluminum usage, more wastage of power due to I2R.

Earthing has to be good, use a Earth Leakage Trip Device. If earth wire gets snapped outside and some appliance is leaking, the metal clad appliances may give shock. Even if no appliance is leaking, the current thru y-capacitors of EMI Filters in Electronic Gadgets like computers are enough to make your Neon tester glow.

The Circuits related to Mains Power
delabs

Contents

Basic Electronics
Basics of Electronics
Product Production
Work Discipline
Testing Points
Learning Electronics
Electronics Theory

Production Notes
Prototype Fabrication
Electrical Circuits
Electromechanical


Library
Scots Guide Electronics
Engineering - Wikibooks
Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
DC Circuits UOG
Socratic Electronics
Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


Product Design
Product Development
Constant Current Source
Good Voltage Regulators
Insulation Resistance
Digital Insulation Tester
DN Schematic PCB 04
DN Product Design 07


Hobby Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
LED brightness control
555 Incredible Chip
Process Control
liquid level measurement
Thermocouples and RTD
Design ADC Interface uC
Thermocouple Amplifier
IA Instrumentation 02
Temperature on DMM
Optical Proximity Switch
Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


Test Measurement
Instrumentation Automation
NI Test and Measurement
DMM Digital Multi Meter
Oscilloscope in T&M
IA Automation 01
Build Instruments
Tektronix T&M Equipment
Educators Corner – Agilent


Power Electronics
UPS Background
Transformer Connections
DN Power Electronics 03
DN Power Electronics 02
Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


Embedded
Interfacing Microcontrollers
Embedded Process Control
80C31 8052 Microcontroller
Microprocessors and uC
Embedded Systems Design

Components
Good Voltage Regulators
Relays and Contactors
Potentiometers Trimpots
Prototype Boards Types
Types of Capacitors
Types of Switches
Resistors How they Work
Coils Transformers SMPS
Mains Transformers Types
DN Components Selection 05

Tutor Gadgets
Count-Up Timer
Digital Logic Gates
Electronics Tutors

History
Teaching Instruments
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Muntzing a Circuit Design
Teralab Electronics projects
Historical Instruments


Tables, Charts, Videos
Binary and Hex
Resistor Color Code
Ohms Law
Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
High Resistance Materials

Analog
School - Analog Design
DN Analog Basics 06
DN Op-Amps 01
TI Semiconductors