Monday, December 26, 2011

Control system design Notes

Proportional Controllers not only save energy, they can give a controlled finish or treatment to a job. An on-off controller or thermostat limit protection has to be used in series, this is to to stop a Runaway Process.

Control system design Notes

There was a real life instance when a Temperature cycling oven maker (environment chamber), faced large liabilities as an 8086 based profile controller and chart recorder just locked up and all the electronic equipment were roasted. Here even a bimetallic thermostat would have saved the day. Nowadays we have a watchdog timer to prevent such uP mishaps, but still use an analog controller in series as an over temperature trip.

Other Reading

The basics of control system design: Part 1 - Moving beyond PID

"This series of six articles will explore the use of six variations of P, I, and D gains: Proportional Control, Proportional-Integral Control, Psueodo-derivative feedback with feed-forwared (PDFF), PID control, PID+ control, and Proportional Derivative Control."

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Interface a PC to Measure or Control Temperature

Thermocouple, RTD, Temperature monitoring is central to the majority of data acquisition systems, be it to save energy costs, increase safety, reduce testing time…whatever your reasons, you will need a device to measure the temperature - a temperature sensor.

How to Use Your PC to Measure Temperature

Thermocouples, resistance temperature devices (RTDs), thermistors and infrared thermometers are all types of temperature sensor. Which you choose depends on factors like your expected maximum and minimum temperatures, the accuracy you need and your environmental conditions.

Interface a PC to Measure or Control Temperature

Windmill data acquisition software with Microlink hardware

752-RTD: RTD Resistance Temperature Measurement, Digital I/O, Counting, Analog Output
  • Measure temperature using RTDs or Pt100 sensors, and voltage signals
  • With extra hardware monitor thermocouples and strain gauge bridges
  • Includes the powerful yet easy-to-use Windmill software for Windows: no programming required
  • Connect up to 8 USB units to one PC
Here is a way you can learn, How To Interface PC to the Outside World.

Temperature Control with a PC

delabs Notes

This is a project that will help students learn both hardware and software aspects of a control system. Here you can test out an automation program on a PC with minimum external hardware.

When you implement in the field, the system has to be a dedicated real time uC based product on custom firmware. Systems with OS + Software combination are not known to be reliable in Process Control. But OS + Software is good for Supervisory Systems which get their data from Real Time Controllers.

So a front end controller must be Rugged, Non-PC based and Non-OS based embedded system. With a Robust and Compact (means fast) firmware.

The firmware should be Polling or Interrupt based but with both internal and external watchdog. Most important a Power supply Management that resets system properly over Brown-outs and Black-outs. Even today some Embedded Systems i have to turn off and on after power resumes.

Don't Forget, Multiple Watch Dogs and Multiple Power Management for graceful start of system !! Use one big SuperCap if you want. Else people will go back to Thermostats.

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Wiley InterScience - Technical Content

Introduced in 1997 and launched commercially in January 1999, Wiley InterScience is a leading international resource for quality content promoting discovery across the spectrum of scientific, technical, medical and professional endeavors.

Wiley InterScience - Technical Content

Enhanced Tools to Discover Relevant Content: Comprehensive search engine optimization ensures easy discoverability of content, delivering relevant and immediate results to users.

Wiley InterScience - Technical Content

Industrial Engineering

Subjects like robotics, Engineering Management, Industrial Reference Books and Manufacturing Engineering. Includes Plastics, Metals and Mechanical Engineering aspects.

Electrical & Electronics Engineering

The topics here are Electronics and Communications, Reliability, Testing Technology, Industrial Electronics, Process Control Methods, Lighting and Power Supplies too,

CrossRef - Connect users to primary research content, by enabling publishers to work collectively.
CrossRef is an independent membership association, founded and directed by publishers. CrossRef's mandate is to connect users to primary research content, by enabling publishers to work collectively.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

LED Lighting and LED Lamp Drivers

LED Lighting is gradually replacing CFL Lamps because they are more frugal in drawing energy and last many years. These have been around for some years and the technology is progressing. Now LEDs which show the illuminated objects in their true colors (like sunlight) are also coming. Due to the green initiatives of many countries, people have become aware and also implementing these solutions. These become a necessity when you start using Solar Panels for Home Power.

LED Lighting at delabs Tech

LED Lighting and LED Lamp Drivers

The CFL lamps have reduced the use of the Filament Bulb due to lower power consumption. Now LED lamps may have to replace CFL but it is progressing. Few years ago only Conference Rooms, Media Events or Product Exhibits could afford the LED lighting, it was a Novelty. Now LEDs are affordable and Reliable Driver Solutions are also available.

The problem like in most Tech Learning Curves is now the SMPS drivers for these LED Arrays. The LEDs are reliable, but drive systems are still having problems. Cost effective drive systems from make affordable lighting possible. But due to Quality and Reliability issues, system integrators face implementation problems.

When Mitutoyo the maker of the Best Metric Tools started decades ago, it faced a tough market. In those days, Japanese Goods were known as cheap and low quality in Europe and America.

Companies like Mitutoyo, Sony, Misubishi, Hitachi and many more changed the scenario completely. Now Japan is a Symbol of High Quality and New technology Innovations. Other countries should follow this Golden Example set by Japan and its Products. Every new firm has to go thru those Stages.

A genuine long term commitment to R&D and Quality will build the reputation of Brands, Firms and entire Regions. Anyway, here are some nice resources to help build Drivers and Systems for LED Lighting.

These Semiconductors and Applications are Excellent, the driver systems have to be engineered and perfected by manufacturing and development. A casual or quick results method will backfire. Hence system integrators start by working closely with the vendor (Vendor Development) of Drive Systems. Finally deliver only systems that are Robust and Burnt in. The other option, work with know friendly customers as a Beta Testing and learning phase, till systems reliable for global deliveries.

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Facts of EMI and RFI from the Inside

Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio-frequency interference or RFI when in radio frequency) is disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.
Electromagnetic interference Wiki

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna
170 – 1100 MHz with omni directional H-plane pattern

Who would know better about Radio Frequency Interference and ElectroMagnetic Interference more than the Hams or Amateur Radio Community.

If they have to communicate effectively using limited resources, they have to deal with EMI/RFI effectively, While they build their equipment or combat Noise from other Machines and Installations nearby.

This problem needs more practical involvement and experimentation to learn, compared to learning something like Digital Electronics.

Equipment and Electricals like SMPS, AC/DC Drives, Motors, Solenoids and CFL Lamps are to be built/reinforced for low EMI/RFI emission/radiation.

Sensitive Medical Equipment like ECG or even a Aircraft can be seriously affected by Noise.

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

Tuesday, September 06, 2011

Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Product Safety
  • Product should not give even the lightest shock, Even metal parts on user side to be laminated.
  • High energy circuits never enters analog and digital circuit areas without Opto or other Isolation.
  • Gadgets, Furniture, Tools and Storage Units should not cause injury. Rounded Edges, Non Toxic.
  • LED and Lasers can damage Vision, welding too. Use Protective Filter Glasses. After a comment by John Bump
Worker Safety
  • Helmet, Goggles and Face/Respiratory Mask when working with power tools/ abrasion and large objects.
  • Crepe Bandage, Neoprene Ankle/Knee/Thigh Support when pushing or pulling or Physical Exertion.
  • Waist/Back Support Belts and Straps to reinforce back/spine while doing Heavy Lifting or Movement.
  • Waistband Thick Belt or Traditional Sash helps Posture and prevents slipped disc or spinal injury.
  • When using a Knife, Sharp Tool, Pointed Tool or Drill; cut/bore away from your body or finger/leg not towards.
  • Use Long Riding Leather/Synthetic Boots when working in chemical plants and heavy industry.
  • Cross Ventilation and exhaust fans important if even little chemical fumes are generated in your work.
  • Soldering, plastic forming and even for some kinds of material processing. Good Ventilation or Masks needed.
Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Workshop Safety
  • Fire hazard and Air pollution in the workplace is the most important two dangers, Electricity is third.
  • Use Leather Boots when working with high voltage, also silicone flexible gloves or Latex Gloves.
My Recent Lessons -

Wear ear muffs when Noise present in surroundings to avoid distraction. When your own tools/work create too much noise, then also ear muffs protect ears, give some allowance/filter for audio feedback
  • Cut away from you, not towards. Sharp tools and Power tools keep job at a distance. Watch for Splinters.
  • Both Legs and at least one hand insulated when working with High Voltage.
  • Use the right tool for the right job. Do not use cutting plair like a hammer.
  • Do not use Teeth, Legs etc. as tools. Only Iron and Steel should face the Job.

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

Ergonomics and Manpower the Engine of Growth -  A Worker in One Firm is a Customer for another Firm. Healthy and Safe Workers implies a strengthening Consumer base.Just imagine what wonders it can do for the economy, when you broaden your view, think togetherness, as a Whole; not in isolated competitive groups, not in parts.

Ergonomics reduces Worker Stress. Helps in keeping good Mental and Physical Health. Safety is very important. His Limbs, Eyes and Ears are assets that a firm hires.

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

A good Manager knows that Manpower is the Foremost Asset of any Company.
First Aid and Flame Resistant Uniforms

Tools and Apparel to make workplace safe. First Aid and Safety, Fire Protection and Flame Resistant Clothing. Cleanrooms  are very important for Microelectronics, MEMS and Precision Instrumentation.

In spite of "Prevention better than cure", a worker can get injured, more so on the field, where preventive measures may not be in place. A Portable First Aid Kit that should be in Service and Commissioning Departments. A stitch in time saves nine. in reference to: "Your employees may require first aid at remote worksites, too."

Worker Safety and Health Education

When we educate ourselves about a Hazard, that awareness is the first step of defense. Resources like this should have a Kids Section. Just like Nasa and Fcc have. We have to catch them young, Interactive tutors and Activities will prepare them for a Safe and Sensible future. Home, Garden, Transport and School are also like a Workpace.

Kids of recent generations are degrading intellectually, it is more so in the developed countries. Education has to be emphasized, Hobby DIY activities encouraged. Hardships simulated, so they become responsible Young Citizens.

Rockefeller Jr. (A Philanthropist) was brought up with such discipline, he was not allowed entertainment when he was young. His father the richest man in the US at that time.

Resource for Workers and Employers. CDC - Workplace Safety and Health

Intrinsic Safety and Zener Barriers

Designing and Building Intrinsically safe Industrial Systems is of paramount importance as Human Safety is involved. Even in Switching Loads some contactors, relays, circuit breakers and motors are hazards as some sparking becomes inevitable.

Intrinsic Safety -

Solid State Relays are safer but on an overload even these can pose a fire hazard if a HRC fuse is not used. Sensor measurements must employ low voltages and currents. Even cabling management and hermetically sealed enclosures may be required when volatile fluids are close by.

delabs Notes - 2002 -2005

Monday, August 22, 2011

Circuit Builder with Oscilloscope - Physlets

Simulates AC and DC circuits. Created by by Toon Van Hoecke at the Universiteit Gent. Try out small circuits and see response in Meters and Scope. Using the Java Applet Power.

Install the latest Java jre and use the IE browser. In Control Panel Java-Security add a site exception Then you can see the simulations. (2017 win 10 )

Java 1.1 Physlets

Physlets are simple.  The graphics are simple; each Physlet is designed to deal with only one facet of physical phenomena, and does not incorporate very much in the way of data analysis.  This keeps Physlets relatively small—easing downloading problems over slow network connections—and removes details that could be more distracting than helpful.

Circuit Builder with Oscilloscope - Physlets

Circuitbuilder simulates AC and DC circuits.  It was written by by Toon Van Hoecke at the Universiteit Gent.  Circuit Builder can be used in interactive mode (see above) or it can be scripted using JavaScript (see the demo pages). In order for scripting to work, Circuit Builder requires a Java 1.1 capable browser with JavaScript to Java scripting capability.

Physlets or Physics Applets, are small flexible Java applets designed for science education.

Friday, August 19, 2011

Electrochemistry Encyclopedia

This site contains popular-science style articles describing many aspects of electrochemistry. New articles are added at irregular intervals, and all articles are periodically updated as recent developments occur in the field.

Electrochemistry Encyclopedia
  • Anodizing - Robert S Alwitt
  • Brine electrolysis - Tilak V. Bommaraju and Paul J. Orosz
  • Corrosion inhibition - Norman Hackerman
  • Dielectrics - William D. Brown, Dennis Hess, Vimal Desai, and M. Jamal Deen
  • Electric fish, electric organ discharges, and electroreception - Theodore H. Bullock
  • Electrochemical engineering - Richard C. Alkire and Thomas W. Chapman
  • Electrochemical machining - Joseph McGeough
Extractive metallurgy

"Metal sulfide flotation concentrates can be treated in a number of ways. These include using pyrometallurgy, or smelting at high temperature, in which process the sulfur in the metal sulfide is oxidized with air or oxygen to sulfur dioxide, and molten metal is produced."

Materials-Science of which Chemical/Electrochemical Engineering is a part; is behind all the development of electronic components and manufacturing. The Backbone is Applied Science. A Super Capacitor or a Special RF Semiconductor can only be developed using the research and efforts of these scientists.

The Sciences or their study has been much nurtured and supported by some countries like the USA. This is the foundation on which many other Technologies like Electronics and Computing thrive. In many other countries this is many times not even perceived as its is not 'glamorous' and requires much efforts and dedication.

"If the Foundation of Applied Sciences is sound, the Building of Technology is Sturdy"

As said by -
Elektrick Power Jedi - Charge Minds with Electricity

Thursday, August 18, 2011

Learning Science to Promote Scientific Thinking

Here are some resources of Science, i found useful. Latest news on science, technology, hard science subjects of physics, space and earth science, electronics, nanotechnology and technology in general.

Museums are virtual Universities. 3D Scaled Interactive Scientific and Engineering Demonstrations in Tech Museums Inspire, Educate and Train many students on Science and Technology Subjects.

Learning Science to Promote Scientific Thinking

Such Live Interactive Demonstrations may be very useful for Maths and Economics as well. These are Subtle and Complex Sciences which need Gross Manifests or Exhibits to help youngsters grasp Ideas and Concepts easily.

PhysOrg - science and tech news
Publishing around 100 articles every business day, PhysOrg offers the most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. PhysOrg exclusive feature stories are original and not found elsewhere on the web.

Multimedia Physics - SchulPhysik
Physics and Physlets. Astronomy - planet, space weather, cosmos. Mathematics - algebra to statistics. Optics and electrical. Geophysics, Energy, Galileo.

Mike's Electric Stuff is an Online Electrical Vintage Tour, back in time.

Flinn Scientific - Science Activities - Sells educational science supplies. Site has especially useful information on lab safety and lab design.  Physical Science Activities - Exciting experiments which illustrate important scientific concepts and are exciting for both you and your students

National Science Digital Library - NSDL was established by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2000 as an online library which directs users to exemplary resources for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and research.

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

CIPCO Energy Library - Electrical Study

Presented in a Easy to understand, layman language. This Energy and Electrical Basics is a must for all who want to save power and lead a Green Lifestyle.
Undertand your Appliance and The Energy Supplier. The way electricity is generated and reaches your home.

CIPCO Energy Library - Electrical Study

A class in basic electricity and how the electric utility industry generates and delivers power to customers. Designed primarily for use by utility field representatives who need to understand electrical principles.

Fundamentals of Electricity Covers the subject of motors from an explanation of how they work, to the advantages/disadvantages of adjustable speed drives, see Motors & Drives section.
Complete descriptive information on closed- and open-loop geothermal heat pump systems. Residential, multifamily and commercial applications are all covered. - Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

Wednesday, August 10, 2011

Accelerometers in Electronics

An accelerometer is a device that measures non-gravitational accelerations. These are accelerations produced by mechanically accelerating the accelerometer via its casing. - Accelerometer Wikipedia - Accelerometer - An accelerometer is a device which measures acceleration; how fast it's speeding up. In the past an accelerometer could be a complex, bulky piece of equipment, but in
today's world, accelerometers are available as single ic's and use complex microscale machining technology.

The MMA7260Q is a 3-axis accelerometer - Tom Igoe - The MMA7260Q is a 3-axis accelerometer from Freescale Semiconductor.

Balancing robot needs gyroscope and accelerometer

Populated Gryo PCB

ADXRS150 and ADXRS300 piezo-gyroscope integrated circuit, The gyro is very small at about 5mm square (about 0.3 inches square). You can see the small combo gyro PCB mounted vertically in the center section on the balancing robot

ADXL105 Lower-Noise Wider-Bandwidth Accelerometer - The ADXL105, a near-ideal kind of vibration sensor, eliminates significant problems with existing vibration sensors, such as piezoelectric and bulk capacitive sensors. Primary benefits derive from much lower cost, stable sensitivity as a function of frequency and temperature, ruggedness, and ease of use. Besides machine health and condition monitoring, it is particularly well suited for noise and vibration cancellation applications.
triple axis accelerometer

AccelR8 is a device for measuring acceleration - AccelR8 is a device for measuring acceleration. It can measure +/- 2 g. As it contains a microprocessor, it an also measure time.

A beginner's guide to accelerometers - By measuring the amount
of static acceleration due to gravity, you can find out the angle the device is tilted at with respect to the earth. By sensing the amount of dynamic acceleration, you can analyze the way the device is moving.

Society of Robots' tilt to servo control app - How does it
work? Inside an accelerator MEMS device are tiny micro-structures that bend due to momentum and gravity. When it experiences any form of acceleration, these tiny structures bend by an equivelent amount which can be electrically detected

David T.'s motor balancing experiments - Using an oscilloscope to measure AC vibration signals generated by an accelerometer (from Dimension Engineering).

Thursday, August 04, 2011

Energy and Power Measurements

To make an analog design using log amps or multipliers, discovercircuits - four-quad is good for learning. Using a uP for math is better. Look at these links below. Build a Power Meter ! The Metrics for Going Green is with a Energy/Power/Watt meter.

enerjar - diy power meter

Related Reading

Wednesday, August 03, 2011

Watlow Reference and Guides

Louis Desloge Sr. founds Watlow Electric Manufacturing Company in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to manufacture electric heating elements for the shoe industry. 1922

Watlow Sensors, Processing and Heaters

'Watlow designs and manufactures industrial heaters, sensors and controllers - all of the components of a thermal system."

 SERIES F4 Ramping Controller

The SERIES F4 1⁄4 DIN industrial ramping temperature controller meets the requirements of the most demanding ramp soak controller processing applications.

This ramping temperature controller features a four line, high-definition LCD interface display for quick and easy profile programming and controller configuration.

SERIES F4 Ramping Controller

Watlow reference data provides information for amperage conversions, thermocouple types, RTD tolerances and more.

Watlow Ltd- Reference - Guides and Tutorials

Watlow is the leader in engineering and manufacturing custom commercial electric heaters. ... offer electric heating elements, industrial heaters..

Tuesday, August 02, 2011

System-on-Chip - SoC - IP

When a product has to be made small, the board real estate is limited or it has to be manufactured in large numbers.... SoC is the Answer. A Microprocessor evolved into a Microcontroller by packing many external chips into one chip. Now uC Card along with the other blocks like A-D, Port Drivers, Networking elements, Display Driver and other peripherals can be packed into one chip.

Some Power Supply and RF blocks cannot be easily added inside as they have a silicon processing more specific to their applications. Laser trimmed Instrumentation Op-Amps, high accuracy resistor arrays, high value capacitors, magnetics and supporting chips are placed outside on the PCB.

The SOC can pack Digital Chips, Memory, A/D, D/A converters, uC, RAM and Custom programmable areas. For more specialized communications, analog and power requirements; Special SoC types can tackle RF and Power management within a chip because of proprietary silicon processing expertise.

System on a chip - Wiki

"A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems."
System-on-Chip - SoC - IP

Programmable SoC offers an alternative to custom ASIC as you can make different products from the same chip, yet make products that are portable and low power. The software, pcb, user interface and support components has to be redesigned for every unique product. Many standard IPs are available for Design and Reuse.

Some of the early Philips (nxp) 8031 variations had integrated a lot of outer chips like A/D, D/A display driver etc. This made Programmable Industrial Instruments/Gadgets possible with just a few external components. Now many variations are available from chip manufacturers, with more speed, memory and peripherals inside. Futuristic gadgets may be intelligent, interactive, networked and portable. The SoC chip makes it all possible, by integrating all product functions within it except the user interface.

SoC with a Color LCD driver, Wi-Fi, USB, RAM and Flash last you have a Computer in a Chip. Better still Web-Chip.

Stratix IV FPGAs: Think AND, not OR

With 40 nm Stratix IV FPGAs you can reach new levels of system-on-a-chip (SoC) integration. Building on the advanced, proven Stratix III architecture, Stratix IV FPGAs deliver a high-density, feature-rich and high-performance core fabric. Combined with flexible I/Os, high-bandwidth transceivers, and memory interfaces,

Atmel AT91RM9200 is ARM920T-based

It has 16K-byte instruction and 16K-byte data cache memories, 16K bytes SRAM, 128K bytes ROM, External Bus Interface incl. SDRAM, Burst Flash and Static Memory Controllers, USB Device and Host Interfaces, Ethernet 10/100 BaseT MAC, Power Management Controller and much more...

More Reading

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Digital Signal Processing - DSP

When you are trying to arrive at a complex Embedded Systems and Communications solution, You will think of a DSP. Now that computers and embedded devices are used in most electronic devices, DSP is a way you can process, transform, analyze and generate fast analog data, in Real Time.

Real Time ideally is instantaneous or in sync, in tandem. Not an Zepto Second lost. But in the real world many analog inputs or result outputs can be processed a lot slower. So it is more like, How 'real time' you want, how cost-effective a real-time solution can be provided. If the analog input is slow and the system inertia is high and the user response time is limited by his persistence of vision, you need to make a system just a bit faster, even Microseconds delay may be fine. In yet another case it may be pico seconds.

Modulated Waveform

A web page in a browser delays a few milliseconds, you will not notice; but when you talk over the phone a small delay, echo or glitch can be unpleasant.

In a weather station the wind speed, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are measured as analog signals using special sensors. This is then converted to digital data and fed to an embedded system or computer. The computer software analyzes the data and arrives at some predictions based on past patterns. This system in its simplest form, may not be DSP, but it is the beginning of this science, the first step.

Audio, Video, Image Processing, Speech Processing, Biometrics, etc. All these can use DSP to Produce an Output or generate a Result in a more repeatable and controllable manner than analog.

Real world signals or inputs are analog, Like the RGB color gradients in a Image or Video, the Harmonics in a Sound and The Noise in a Radar Signal. When these signals are processed in the conventional manner, many stages of semiconductors and Passive RLC blocks are needed and fine tuning them is delicate. Aging (magnetics-electrolytics), Vibration, Temperature, Humidity may alter the tuned parameters. Manufacturing and testing them is also tedious.

In a DSP solution we first convert the analog signals into digital streams. It could be multiple analog sources. Audio may need a slow A/D Conversion, Processing TV signals have to be faster.

An Analog to Digital convertor for an Image Processor in an Object Recognition System may be slow, but the data may has to be processed quickly and results of match or mismatch generated fast. If this system has to work with say coffee beans on a fast moving conveyor.... Check if they have been roasted well or not, even pop off beans that may affect the flavor of that batch, Then both scan and result has to be very fast.

If a Supersonic plane has to watch, prepare and react for all objects flying close by, the Real Time response of the system puts the design and technology to test. Even the software has to be lean and ultra fast, to react before it is too late.

Digital Signal Processing - MIT OpenCourseWare

Digital Signal Processing begins with a discussion of the analysis and representation of discrete-time signal systems, including discrete-time convolution, difference equations, the z-transform, and the discrete-time Fourier transform. Emphasis is placed on the similarities and distinctions between discrete-time. The course proceeds to cover digital network and nonrecursive (finite impulse response) digital filters. Digital Signal Processing concludes with digital filter design and a discussion of the fast Fourier transform algorithm for computation of the discrete Fourier transform.

Digital Signal Processing Overview
Digital Signal Processing Overview

A digital signal processing system takes a continuous sound wave as input, feeds it through an analog low-pass filter (an anti-aliassing filter) to remove all frequencies above half the sampling rate (see Nyquist's sampling theorem).

Digital Signal Processing Control Lab: DSP-59000

Dual processors (TMS-320C5416 & TMS-320LF2407); Built-in audio/video, MP3, Ethernet, Keypad, RS-232/RS-485, temperature control, function generator, PWM , experiment modules.

delabs Technologies

Related Reading

Monday, July 18, 2011

Electronic Test Equipment - Tucker Electronics

New and Used Electronic Test Equipment from Tucker Electronics

  • New Test Equipment
  • Refurbished Test Equipment
  • Used Test Equipment

Tucker Electronics continues to offer New and Refurbished Oscilloscopes, Analyzers, Meters, Counters and Power Supplies from quality manufacturers.

Here is a page i scanned from an old 1986 Tucker Catalog. Standards and Equipments .

From Electronic Catalogs

Measurement Basics at National Instruments

For an T&M Learning, Start with these tutors of NI. Like Analog Amplifier Circuits and Analog RC Filters. RF and Microwave Fundamentals if you want to be good at Communication Technologies. Sensor, DAQ and Instrument Fundamentals for Industrial Automation Learning.

Measurement Fundamentals - National Instruments

National Instruments Wi-Fi DAQ devices combine IEEE 802.11 wireless or Ethernet communication, direct sensor connectivity, and the flexibility of NI LabVIEW software for remote monitoring and control of electrical, physical, mechanical, and acoustical signals.

Measurement Basics at National Instruments

NI Wi-Fi DAQ features and to learn how you can simplify wireless remote measurements without compromising on the security or performance of a cabled data acquisition solution.

delabs Notes

You can learn about every niche/domain in Electronic Technologies. You also need to Specialize in a niche which resonates within you. The skill sets need to be broad, in case you find less opportunities in the specialization you have. This keeps changing all the time.

Jonard Industries - Precision Hand Tools

Here are two pages from an old OK Industries catalog, now part of Jonard Industries. They have wire wrapping systems, which help build test systems, custom solutions easily. They have many Tools which improve productivity for the Electronics Manufacturing Industries.

"Jonard Industries Corp is a World Class Manufacturer of Precision Hand Tools for the Telecom, Computer, Military and Electronic Industries."

Test Instruments bench rack from OK Industries

From Electronic Catalogs

This is a Mini Electric Drill of OK Industries

From Electronic Catalogs

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Process Control Education - Instrumentation

A Resource of Value for Industrial Engineering. Here is an Online Textbook for learning advanced process control concepts.

The Process Control Education Web Site

The Reference includes Sample Process Control Course, Instrumentation for Process Control, WEB-Based Educational Resources for Process Control and Process Operability.

 The Process Control Education Web Site

The material above can also be found on the -Process Control, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000 - ISBN 0-07-039362-1 a textbook by T. Marlin.

delabs Notes - 

Industrial Automation enables Higher skill levels for workers and reduces danger of accidents too. Now the emphasis is for Energy Efficient Industrial Production, not only to save Energy Costs but as a Social Responsibility.

Industries should not pollute water bodies and the atmosphere, this brings us to new process control area of Air and Water Quality Measurement and regulation.

SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

A Closed loop control system has a Sensor-Controller-Actuator. The Bimetal Thermostat has all the three in the Bimetal itself. The Sensor, the Relay Contact and the Intelligence. This is Process Control when implemented to control the temperature in a Bakery Oven.

This leads us to Sensors-Transmitter-Controller-Outputs-Actuators. Where each is an independent electronic/electrical component of an entire Process Control system. The Process could be Temperature, Pressure, Speed, or Level.

IntegraXor SCADA

IntegraXor SCADA  - Create the interactive graphical interface for multi-device compatibility.

Industrial Automation encompasses many such Process Control Systems to form a Engineered System Solution for an Entire production line with different stages and process types.

At the machine end, the control has to be real time and highly reliable, dedicated controllers both Analog and Microcontrollers based are used. Analog as a fallback/override/trip or backup controller in case Embedded system gets stuck/fails.

These controllers or transmitters also send the data of the process back to a center control panel room. The actuators and outputs also have an override from the control panel. Sometimes Intelligent controllers at machine end can be remotely tweaked/tuned by Control room. This is possible due to Embedded systems and Flash., It also can pose problems if misused. Using SCADA such networking of these process control systems and Monitoring, Tweaking, Data Collection and Analysis is possible.

Come Internet or Web and Wireless, the scenario changes entirely. The Control room stays where it is, the Tablets can Access and utilize the SCADA and entire plant at the machine end also. The Control room can be carried around with limited access. This evolves further to that extent that an expert engineer can check the status of the Product Line from any Web Browser and suggest remedial  actions to the others at the factory. He can even see the status on mobile devices. Now study the Resources below.

Red Lion Controls - HMI and Process Control - HMI operator interface panels for PLCs, motor drives.

Sielco Sistemi - Winlog Pro is a SCADA/HMI software package - TCP/IP Client Server support, Intranet/Internet architecture.

See Some Industrial Grade SCADA Solutions here
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition WikiPedia

wSCADA - Internet SCADA - Office Factory Integration - Online Automation

Industrial Process parameters, production flow or work status, material offtake, processing of products, incoming inspection status and quality process monitoring. All these need to be interfaced with the ERP and access to Mobile devices like Smartphones and remote Computers provided. This helps smooth micro management of a industry. Some Interfaces may have supervisory control and others just graphs and progress charts. Depending on the person and his work or machine area.

The data and presentation of complex data (by graphs and charts) enhances analysis and timely decision making. Then these solutions will be productive, and be an asset to an existing system. To ensure that; software or webware developers have to be supported by the domain experts having decades of hands on experience on the shop floor. Else; if it is built on theory and some statistics, the result may appear good and work well for small or standard configurations, but in demanding, changing, real life scenario, it may fail to deliver the best.

WebSCADA - Automation Systems - Process Control, Historian, Event Alarm. WebSCADA provides automation platforms on the Internet.

NetBiter - Monitoring and control through web pages - Monitor and control over the Ethernet using web pages.

Monday, July 11, 2011

Non-Destructive Testing NDT Resource

Eddy Current Testing (ET) and Infrared/Thermal Testing (IRT) are Interesting Areas where experienced designers can build and manufacture Test Equipment.

Community College Education Resource

These pages have NDT study material for college and Science Educational Pages for High School.

Students can get ideas for original project work on one of these concepts. Choose one area and then research in the web. When i had to build Equipment, it would be difficult to get the catalogs and datasheets of Materials or Methods. Now master the art or searching online, then create your database. Study, Learn and Build !

Direct Read Pocket Dosimeter

Pocket Dosimeter
"Pocket dosimeters are used to provide the wearer with an immediate reading of his or her exposure to x-rays and gamma rays. As the name implies, they are commonly worn in the pocket. The two types commonly used in industrial radiography are the Direct Read Pocket Dosimeter and the Digital Electronic Dosimeter."

More at - NDT Resource Center

Wednesday, July 06, 2011

Molecubes Bionic Learning Network Festo

Molecubes Bionic Learning Network Festo - "Molecubes - an attractive programmable robotics system Molecubes could play a significant role in technical training in the near future. These cubes, fitted with computer chips, can be successively attached to each other."

Festo Bionic Learning Network
  Molecubes Bionic Learning Network Festo
"Bionic design principles serve as the basis for the development of new gripper technology for flexible adaptive grasping in the mechanical handling industry..."

Here Festo is helping students of Robotics and Automation learn from nature's intricate and sophisticated Nueromuscular Systems. I am using the word Nueromuscular in a different way, here it means Wires (Nerves), Control System (Brain, Spinal cord), Solenoids & Valves (Muscular System).

These Bionic Systems can also be used the other way around, they can be designed for Reinforcing/Replacing Weak or Lost Limbs. Even a person with a handicap, can do most tasks on his own, aided by the Bionic Appendages.

Study These Resources to understand Bionics which is closely related to Robotics and Automation.

Saturday, July 02, 2011

Analytical Instrumentation Technologies

Let us assume Physics, Chemistry and Biology as Verticals on a Horizontal plane called Science. A part of Physics developed into Magnetism and Electricity, which further evolved into Electrical Engineering a Technology. When a branch of Science is applied to develop, evolve and maintain Life on this Planet it becomes a Technology.

Electrical Engineering as a Technology has evolved and branched out into many specialized domains. With the coming of Semiconductors and the Advancements of Material Technologies, Electronics Engineering emerged as a foundation or a Horizontal for many new Verticals.

Analytical Instrumentation Technologies

One such Vertical is Instrumentation, here you know Industrial Process Control is one and the other is Test and Measurement. The third branch we learn about today is "Analytical Instrumentation Technologies" which is more like an Oblique, it Cuts thru Physics, Chemistry and Biology and many of its sub-branches. It also supports the areas called Life Sciences, Bio Technology, GeoSciences, Materials Science etc. .

Here i have posted some analytical instruments ... Laboratory Analytical, - Research and Lab Instruments, Bio and Earth Science. - - Test and Measurement Instrumentation.

Start Learning -
(I Inherited some chemistry apparatus and chemicals from my grandfather. This lead to a Tiny Physical and Electro-Chemistry lab in the Store Room and later the Garage when i was at school. That is one of the reasons my website has the name delabs and i created a blog called "Analytical Bionics" around 2004. Later those posts were integrated in my other blogs.)

Friday, June 24, 2011

Online Electrical and Electronics Books

Some books that will help you learn electronics and are free too. Youngsters have a great wealth to find in the libraries. The Present day has made more information available online, it supplements the library resource. What can never be found in libraries are found on the net and can be searched too. Here every individual shares his projects, ideas and designs and is not edited or moderated by any publisher or media.

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)
These are nice Mini Reference Books that can build the Learning of EE students. Some interesting booklets - Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement; Intro. to Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping; Microelectronics and Test Equipment.

Communications students see Wave Propagation Transmission Lines, and Antennas; Microwave Principles and Fiber Optics. Technician's Handbook and Test Methods and Practices are a must read.

Electronic and Computer Engineering
Here you can find some free books in PDF format and also Books with sample chapters, you can Review and Buy if you like.

Some of the Books on Embedded Systems and Communications are quite good and even the sample chapters will bring an appetite to study the subject and buy the Book.

Portal Electronics - Wikipedia

Portal:Electronics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is the place to start in wikipedia. It has a summary of the various content areas in wiki. A Selected design, Consumer showcase, Selected article and all the other bookmarks for the electronics enthusiast, student, professional.

Thursday, June 16, 2011

Learn About Electronics - Eric Coates

Many pages, illustrations and Interactive demonstrations in Electronics. A new section on AC electronics, designed to teach the basics of AC Theory in 10 easy to learn modules. Individual topics too like capacitors, inductors, reactance, impedance, etc.

Learn About Electronics - Eric Coates

The Step-by-Step Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism is very simple and full of nice Explaining Pictures. This will work up your appetite to learn more about the Physics and Chemistry in Electronics.
  • Section 3.1 Electromagnetic Induction.
  • In section 2.1 Capacitors.
Eric Coates has 26 year practical career in electronics, and 17 years as a lecturer in vocational colleges in the UK.

Sunday, June 05, 2011

Uninterrupted Power Distribution for Homes

The Enhancement of Mains power system for Homes and Small Business is critical. The population is more now and the use of electricity for more appliances becomes inevitable, this makes power shortages imminent.

Power Electronics & Solar Energy

The power to Homes can be distributed by two types of phase lines (live), a common neutral and the usual earth. High Phase is for Heaters and Motors and some lighting too. This phase can be shut down on power failure, load management or over use. The other is the Green Energy line, a low current phase which never fails! It is used only for lighting and small and light electronic appliances. It is a limited energy line.

"Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services."

That means, so much kWhr for a month, beyond which the line will trip off for the month. This Green Line is augmented by solar, wind or tidal electricity. That way this Green Line is Uninterrupted, but Energy Limited. This will bring a sense of responsibility on the consumer, who will plan the usage of his Green Power Line carefully.

The other High Phase raw line can go off due to Black-out and Brown-outs, when there is a shut down or load balancing. This can also be energy limited at a higher threshold, depending on the number of people in the small business or home. Big Companies have their own Mini Power stations to manage the Power problems, Here also a Green Line can be provided in addition to the mini power stations.

The sensible and frugal, energy consumer can depend on his Green Line to manage his office or home, with no interruption of power. All Home users, Commercial Establishments, Factories and Companies have to become responsible, frugal and austere in the consumption of both electricity and fossil fuels. This not only saves the costs for the company, but the society (read customers) which is the environment they depend on, is also sustained.

Happy Healthy People means more Customers/Consumers, that implies Economic Growth and a Vibrant/Resilient Stock Market.

Power Electronics shows the way - Power Electronic Circuits.

delabs Notes around 2006

Friday, June 03, 2011

RF circuit design - theory and applications

The objective of this textbook is to develop the RF circuit design aspects in such a way that the need of transmission line principles is made clear without adopting an electromagnetic field approach. Therefore, no EM background is necessary beyond a first year undergraduate physics course in fields and waves as provided by most colleges and universities. Students equipped with the knowledge of basic circuit theory and/or an exposure to microelectronics can use this book and cover the entire spectrum from the basic principles of transmission .RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications

RF Circuit Design - Theory and Applications by R.Ludwig and P.Bretchko

This practical and comprehensive book introduces RF circuit design fundamentals while emphasizing a circuit-based approach.

RF circuit design: theory and applications

Covers a number of important topics, including RF Amplifier Designs; Matching Networks; Scattering parameters; Smith Chart; Oscillators and Mixers; common filter types; the high-frequency behavior of common circuit components; the theory of distributed parameters through a discussion on Transmission Lines; and active/passive RF circuits. It also provides features to make the material easier to digest, including self-contained chapters that require only simple mathematical skills (calculus) and examples that are strategically dispersed throughout the chapter to clarify and explain the theoretical developments.

Thursday, May 19, 2011

EE and Computer Online Learning - MIT

Free Online Course Materials for EE and Computers. Here are resources useful for the EE Students and Teachers. These are at MIT and they are available for all. It is a OpenCourseWare (free).

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT

Students can enhance their learning even at home after the classes using these materials. This will help you grasp what happens in the college the next day.

It is also important to keep yourself physically fit. Some jogging, swimming, cycling and light workout will even strengthen the nervous system.

I would not like to write this here, but i have to. My own experience. Do not build muscles for looks or abnormal growths. Some use hormones, over exercise and even some medicines for artificial growth. At a later age it causes lot of problems due to accelerated aging. Even athletes should refrain from these for the long term interest of their health.

RF Microwave and Wireless Data Communication

The days of Voice Communication are coming to an end. In fact it has been happening in the background all along. It is Digital Replacing Analog Everywhere. Voice is now data. In the future Voice Communication is just an App you need to buy as an option.

Whatever the struggle between technologies, The future communications will be just Broadband Wireless Devices with Voice, Data and Web all in one. The intermediate technologies we see today, the Transitional Technologies are part of a Large Learning Curve. The future may be more of Optics, WiMax and more like Any Device can do Anything. Not Convergence but more an Intermeshed Collage.

RF Microwave and Wireless Networks
M2M, Communications, WSN, IoT, Wi-Fi, Device Networking, Fiber Optics.

RF Microwave and Wireless Data Communication

This RF is also a Tough Science and needs Authentic and Highly Skilled Engineers to design and develop the technologies for the future. The Budget of the Average consumer will be less, the appetite enormous. The Business Models complex and very challenging. The customer potential is 100% and it will work only if it is affordable and planned carefully. It is not as easy as it looks.

Read and Learn More -

Time and Frequency Circuits and Articles including frequency synthesis and conversion.Spreadsheets/ Programs to calculate pll response, phase noise under vibration, and others.Wenzel Associates Technical Library

Resources for Radio, Radar, RF, Microwave, & Wireless Engineering. Collection of links to various application notes for different RF Vendors. Links to RF equations, technical data sheets, math notes and much more. RF Cafe - Microwave & Wireless Engineering

Cellular and PCS phones, pagers and two-way radios, radio spectrum. Wireless Telecommunications FCC

"The IEEE WCET certification shows that the individual has demonstrated mastery of the internationally recognized body of wireless communication knowledge…" IEEE WCET - Wireless Communications

RF chips, white papers, FCC, a variety of specialty books on various wireless/ spread spectrum / RF areas, and a wide range of other information.Spread Spectrum Scene Online

A collection of exceptional resources that will prove useful in your spread spectrum and other wireless projects, ranging from spread spectrum & CDMA tutorials, theory, and circuit diagrams, to development tools, OEM products, and consultants. Spread Spectrum and RF Resources

More Reading
With the Wi-Fi and WiMAX becoming essential in Intranet and Internet Networks, and as new low power consumption tablets, netbooks and webbooks become commonplace; RF Microwave learning is important for designers.

It is almost like, every person is a potential user for a Handheld Computer. Which is not only a communicator but more important, News, Knowledge and Information is at his fingertips. This is an empowerment that makes a better worker, student, citizen or a businessman.

delabs Technologies - Ideas of delabs - 2010

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Linear Circuit Design Handbook – Hank Zumbahlen

Linear Circuit Design Handbook, edited by Hank Zumbahlen (Newnes, 2008), bridges the gap between circuit component theory and practical circuit design. Effective analog circuit design requires a strong understanding of core linear devices and how they affect analog circuit design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook – Hank Zumbahlen

This book provides complete coverage of important analog devices and how to use them in designing linear circuits, and serves as a useful learning tool and reference for design engineers involved in analog and mixed-signal design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook - Hank Zumbahlen

Chapters Include

Sensors, RF/IF Circuits, Converters. Analog Filters. Power Management and …
  • Chapter 5: Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems
  • Chapter 7: Data Converter Support Circuitry
  • Chapter 11: Overvoltage Effects on Analog Integrated Circuits
  • Chapter 12: Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design Issues

Tuesday, April 05, 2011 – Calculators and Tools

" is dedicated to providing revolutionary ways for students, parents, teachers, and everyone to learn math. Combining educationally sound principles with proprietary technology, offers a unique experience that quickly guides the user to the solutions they need and the products they want. " - Calculators and Tools
  • Calculators and Tools
  • Math Practice
  • Formulas & Tables
  • Wonders of Math
maths online is a project based at the University of Vienna, Austria, and is running since March 1998.

delabs Technologies

"An Engineer without some working knowledge of Maths is like a Plumber without a Pipe Wrench. Hobby Enthusiasts learn this science, even as they create and fix things."

Math Jedica
Educationists should have two approaches to Math. One the conventional, which is still in practice in many developing countries. The other, that is new, which is interactive, edutainment based, is needed for more than 60 % of the students.

Elektrick the Power Jedi

The brain works differently in various people, because there are mainly two types of brains. One is Predominantly Creative/Practical, the other is Analytical/Logical. Both types are present in each individual, one type is dominant; which define their learning abilities.

When only a traditional approach is taken, many are deprived of a Mathematics Education. Educational Methods have to become realistic and innovate.

Thursday, March 31, 2011

Vernier Software and Technology

They produces hardware and software for data collection in high school, middle school, and college science courses.
Vernier Software and Technology
"Vernier co-founder, David Vernier, had been a high school physics and physical sciences teacher for eight years when he began programming his first Precision Timer software application. David's creativity and his passion for science education, combined with his wife Christine's business acumen, were the driving forces behind the early years of Vernier Software & Technology….."
Texas Instruments and Vernier
Shown on right is a Balancer robot that uses a Vernier Low-g Accelerometer to measure the tilt of a long beam. At the start, there are 10 gram weights on each side of the horizontal beam. As weights are added or removed, the beam unbalances and tilts.

Engineering and Technology – James B. Calvert

Many may already know about these EE Educational pages with Circuits of J. B. Calvert. These pages are valuable as they are like a summation of Important and Practical Sections in many EE Subjects. If you want to master the basics of EE, these pages will propel you in the right direction.

A Welath of Information is at the site - Dr James B. Calvert Associate Professor Emeritus of Engineering, University of Denver and Registered Professional Engineer, State of Colorado. An EE-Encyclopedia Almost.

Engineering and Technology - James B. Calvert
"An extensive series of pages based on experiments that can be done in the personal or home laboratory. The emphasis is on enjoyment and intellectual pleasure, but there is much practical matter as well."

Electronics Index - Includes vacuum tubes and cathode-ray tubes, with many experiments for the home laboratory. Nixie clocks too.

The Electronics Index of J. B. Calvert

The Atmel AVR microprocessors are very similar functionally to the PIC microprocessors, with the same range in size from 8-bit, 8-pin PDIP to 32-bit processors with 100 pins, and similar features.
Atmel AVR 8-Bit Microcontrollers

The ATtiny13A will operate from a supply voltage as low as 1.8V (maximum clock speed 4 Mhz), and with a full 20 MHz clock speed at 4.5V and above. The current drain is much reduced at the lower supply voltages and clock frequencies.

A Magnetometer
It is easy to measure moderate magnetic fields using a Hall sensor, such as the Allegro A1302 linear Hall sensor, available from Jameco. A PIC12F675 can digitize the output of the sensor and display it on a serial LCD display, such as the Newhaven NHD-0216K3Z-FL-GBW 2 line x 16 digit display. This system is shown breadboarded in the figure at the right, measuring the field between the poles of a horseshoe magnet.

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

e-Learning Resources – Physics at Exeter

Excellent Online Educational Pages at Exeter. Students and Teachers can get ideas on how to enhance and enrich the Science Education Process.

e-Learning Resources - Physics at Exeter

A Sound understanding of Physics and Chemistry is needed for stepping into “Electricity and Magnetism”. We have to move young minds into Electronics even before High School, as a part of Science itself.

e-Learning Resources – Physics at Exeter
  • Practical Electronics II and Electronics for Measurement Systems
  • Feedback and Temperature Control
  • Computer Interfaces for Instrumentation Systems
  • Troubleshooting Op-Amp Circuits
Troubleshooting Op-Amp Circuits

The ability to diagnose and cure problems in a systematic manner is an exceptionally valuable skill. In PHY2028 students are given a heap of components, a breadboard, and measuring equipment.

Feedback and Temperature Control

System Model, Types of Feedback Control, On-Off Control, Proportional+Derivative Control, Proportional+Integral+Derivative Control, Proportional+Integral Control, Third-Order Systems..


Basic Electronics
Basics of Electronics
Product Production
Work Discipline
Testing Points
Learning Electronics
Electronics Theory

Production Notes
Prototype Fabrication
Electrical Circuits

Scots Guide Electronics
Engineering - Wikibooks
Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
DC Circuits UOG
Socratic Electronics
Blobz Guide Electric Circuits

Product Design
Product Development
Constant Current Source
Good Voltage Regulators
Insulation Resistance
Digital Insulation Tester
DN Schematic PCB 04
DN Product Design 07

Hobby Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
LED brightness control
555 Incredible Chip
Process Control
liquid level measurement
Thermocouples and RTD
Design ADC Interface uC
Thermocouple Amplifier
IA Instrumentation 02
Temperature on DMM
Optical Proximity Switch
Analog Mux - Data Acquisition

Test Measurement
Instrumentation Automation
NI Test and Measurement
DMM Digital Multi Meter
Oscilloscope in T&M
IA Automation 01
Build Instruments
Tektronix T&M Equipment
Educators Corner – Agilent

Power Electronics
UPS Background
Transformer Connections
DN Power Electronics 03
DN Power Electronics 02
Half Bridge Convertor SG3525

Interfacing Microcontrollers
Embedded Process Control
80C31 8052 Microcontroller
Microprocessors and uC
Embedded Systems Design

Good Voltage Regulators
Relays and Contactors
Potentiometers Trimpots
Prototype Boards Types
Types of Capacitors
Types of Switches
Resistors How they Work
Coils Transformers SMPS
Mains Transformers Types
DN Components Selection 05

Tutor Gadgets
Count-Up Timer
Digital Logic Gates
Electronics Tutors

Teaching Instruments
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Muntzing a Circuit Design
Teralab Electronics projects
Historical Instruments

Tables, Charts, Videos
Binary and Hex
Resistor Color Code
Ohms Law
Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
High Resistance Materials

School - Analog Design
DN Analog Basics 06
DN Op-Amps 01
TI Semiconductors