Monday, December 26, 2011
There was a real life instance when a Temperature cycling oven maker (environment chamber), faced large liabilities as an 8086 based profile controller and chart recorder just locked up and all the electronic equipment were roasted. Here even a bimetallic thermostat would have saved the day. Nowadays we have a watchdog timer to prevent such uP mishaps, but still use an analog controller in series as an over temperature trip.
The basics of control system design: Part 1 - Moving beyond PID
"This series of six articles will explore the use of six variations of P, I, and D gains: Proportional Control, Proportional-Integral Control, Psueodo-derivative feedback with feed-forwared (PDFF), PID control, PID+ control, and Proportional Derivative Control."
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
How to Use Your PC to Measure Temperature
Thermocouples, resistance temperature devices (RTDs), thermistors and infrared thermometers are all types of temperature sensor. Which you choose depends on factors like your expected maximum and minimum temperatures, the accuracy you need and your environmental conditions.
Windmill data acquisition software with Microlink hardware
752-RTD: RTD Resistance Temperature Measurement, Digital I/O, Counting, Analog Output
- Measure temperature using RTDs or Pt100 sensors, and voltage signals
- With extra hardware monitor thermocouples and strain gauge bridges
- Includes the powerful yet easy-to-use Windmill software for Windows: no programming required
- Connect up to 8 USB units to one PC
Temperature Control with a PC
This is a project that will help students learn both hardware and software aspects of a control system. Here you can test out an automation program on a PC with minimum external hardware.
When you implement in the field, the system has to be a dedicated real time uC based product on custom firmware. Systems with OS + Software combination are not known to be reliable in Process Control. But OS + Software is good for Supervisory Systems which get their data from Real Time Controllers.
So a front end controller must be Rugged, Non-PC based and Non-OS based embedded system. With a Robust and Compact (means fast) firmware.
The firmware should be Polling or Interrupt based but with both internal and external watchdog. Most important a Power supply Management that resets system properly over Brown-outs and Black-outs. Even today some Embedded Systems i have to turn off and on after power resumes.
Don't Forget, Multiple Watch Dogs and Multiple Power Management for graceful start of system !! Use one big SuperCap if you want. Else people will go back to Thermostats.
Wednesday, October 19, 2011
Measure resistance and capacitance without an A/D
The old "one-shot" monostable multivibrator circuit has been around since the discovery of the electron. Popular IC versions of this variable pulse width generator include the 74123 and the famous (Philips) Signetics NE555 timer. These circuits use the time to charge a capacitor to a predefined voltage as their time delay.
If the threshold voltage is 1-1/e (e is the natural log base), then the time delay in seconds is exactly the product of the resistance in ohms and the capacitance in Farads (t=RC). This is a linear equation and it can be used to measure an unknown value of R if C and t are known. The purpose of this article is to describe ways to measure a RESISTANCE by using this technique with an 80C51 type of microcontroller.
by Don Sherman AN449 - NXP Philips Application Notes
Sunday, October 16, 2011
Introduced in 1997 and launched commercially in January 1999, Wiley InterScience is a leading international resource for quality content promoting discovery across the spectrum of scientific, technical, medical and professional endeavors.
CrossRef - Connect users to primary research content, by enabling publishers to work collectively.
CrossRef is an independent membership association, founded and directed by publishers. CrossRef's mandate is to connect users to primary research content, by enabling publishers to work collectively.
Thursday, October 13, 2011
LED Lighting at delabs Tech
The CFL lamps have reduced the use of the Filament Bulb due to lower power consumption. Now LED lamps may have to replace CFL but it is progressing. Few years ago only Conference Rooms, Media Events or Product Exhibits could afford the LED lighting, it was a Novelty. Now LEDs are affordable and Reliable Driver Solutions are also available.
The problem like in most Tech Learning Curves is now the SMPS drivers for these LED Arrays. The LEDs are reliable, but drive systems are still having problems. Cost effective drive systems from make affordable lighting possible. But due to Quality and Reliability issues, system integrators face implementation problems.
When Mitutoyo the maker of the Best Metric Tools started decades ago, it faced a tough market. In those days, Japanese Goods were known as cheap and low quality in Europe and America.
Companies like Mitutoyo, Sony, Misubishi, Hitachi and many more changed the scenario completely. Now Japan is a Symbol of High Quality and New technology Innovations. Other countries should follow this Golden Example set by Japan and its Products. Every new firm has to go thru those Stages.
A genuine long term commitment to R&D and Quality will build the reputation of Brands, Firms and entire Regions. Anyway, here are some nice resources to help build Drivers and Systems for LED Lighting.
These Semiconductors and Applications are Excellent, the driver systems have to be engineered and perfected by manufacturing and development. A casual or quick results method will backfire. Hence system integrators start by working closely with the vendor (Vendor Development) of Drive Systems. Finally deliver only systems that are Robust and Burnt in. The other option, work with know friendly customers as a Beta Testing and learning phase, till systems reliable for global deliveries.
Thursday, September 08, 2011
Electromagnetic interference Wiki
Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna
170 – 1100 MHz with omni directional H-plane pattern
Who would know better about Radio Frequency Interference and ElectroMagnetic Interference more than the Hams or Amateur Radio Community.
If they have to communicate effectively using limited resources, they have to deal with EMI/RFI effectively, While they build their equipment or combat Noise from other Machines and Installations nearby.
This problem needs more practical involvement and experimentation to learn, compared to learning something like Digital Electronics.
Equipment and Electricals like SMPS, AC/DC Drives, Motors, Solenoids and CFL Lamps are to be built/reinforced for low EMI/RFI emission/radiation.
Sensitive Medical Equipment like ECG or even a Aircraft can be seriously affected by Noise.
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
Tuesday, September 06, 2011
- Product should not give even the lightest shock, Even metal parts on user side to be laminated.
- High energy circuits never enters analog and digital circuit areas without Opto or other Isolation.
- Gadgets, Furniture, Tools and Storage Units should not cause injury. Rounded Edges, Non Toxic.
- LED and Lasers can damage Vision, welding too. Use Protective Filter Glasses. After a comment by John Bump
- Helmet, Goggles and Face/Respiratory Mask when working with power tools/ abrasion and large objects.
- Crepe Bandage, Neoprene Ankle/Knee/Thigh Support when pushing or pulling or Physical Exertion.
- Waist/Back Support Belts and Straps to reinforce back/spine while doing Heavy Lifting or Movement.
- Waistband Thick Belt or Traditional Sash helps Posture and prevents slipped disc or spinal injury.
- When using a Knife, Sharp Tool, Pointed Tool or Drill; cut/bore away from your body or finger/leg not towards.
- Use Long Riding Leather/Synthetic Boots when working in chemical plants and heavy industry.
- Cross Ventilation and exhaust fans important if even little chemical fumes are generated in your work.
- Soldering, plastic forming and even for some kinds of material processing. Good Ventilation or Masks needed.
- Fire hazard and Air pollution in the workplace is the most important two dangers, Electricity is third.
- Use Leather Boots when working with high voltage, also silicone flexible gloves or Latex Gloves.
Wear ear muffs when Noise present in surroundings to avoid distraction. When your own tools/work create too much noise, then also ear muffs protect ears, give some allowance/filter for audio feedback
- Cut away from you, not towards. Sharp tools and Power tools keep job at a distance. Watch for Splinters.
- Both Legs and at least one hand insulated when working with High Voltage.
- Use the right tool for the right job. Do not use cutting plair like a hammer.
- Do not use Teeth, Legs etc. as tools. Only Iron and Steel should face the Job.
Ergonomics reduces Worker Stress. Helps in keeping good Mental and Physical Health. Safety is very important. His Limbs, Eyes and Ears are assets that a firm hires.
A good Manager knows that Manpower is the Foremost Asset of any Company.
- Cornell University Ergonomics Web
- Definition and Domains of ergonomics
- Safety and Health Topics - Ergonomics
Tools and Apparel to make workplace safe. First Aid and Safety, Fire Protection and Flame Resistant Clothing. Cleanrooms are very important for Microelectronics, MEMS and Precision Instrumentation.
In spite of "Prevention better than cure", a worker can get injured, more so on the field, where preventive measures may not be in place. A Portable First Aid Kit that should be in Service and Commissioning Departments. A stitch in time saves nine. in reference to: "Your employees may require first aid at remote worksites, too."
Worker Safety and Health Education
When we educate ourselves about a Hazard, that awareness is the first step of defense. Resources like this should have a Kids Section. Just like Nasa and Fcc have. We have to catch them young, Interactive tutors and Activities will prepare them for a Safe and Sensible future. Home, Garden, Transport and School are also like a Workpace.
Kids of recent generations are degrading intellectually, it is more so in the developed countries. Education has to be emphasized, Hobby DIY activities encouraged. Hardships simulated, so they become responsible Young Citizens.
Rockefeller Jr. (A Philanthropist) was brought up with such discipline, he was not allowed entertainment when he was young. His father the richest man in the US at that time.
Resource for Workers and Employers. CDC - Workplace Safety and Health
Intrinsic Safety and Zener Barriers
Designing and Building Intrinsically safe Industrial Systems is of paramount importance as Human Safety is involved. Even in Switching Loads some contactors, relays, circuit breakers and motors are hazards as some sparking becomes inevitable.
Intrinsic Safety - Omega.com
Solid State Relays are safer but on an overload even these can pose a fire hazard if a HRC fuse is not used. Sensor measurements must employ low voltages and currents. Even cabling management and hermetically sealed enclosures may be required when volatile fluids are close by.
delabs Notes - 2002 -2005
Monday, August 22, 2011
Simulates AC and DC circuits. Created by by Toon Van Hoecke at the Universiteit Gent. Try out small circuits and see response in Meters and Scope. Using the Java Applet Power.
Java 1.1 Physlets and the Circuitbuilder
It has a Oscilloscope and it pops up the oscilloscope window for your circuit tests.
Physlets or Physics Applets, are small flexible Java applets designed for science education.
Friday, August 19, 2011
- Anodizing - Robert S Alwitt
- Brine electrolysis - Tilak V. Bommaraju and Paul J. Orosz
- Corrosion inhibition - Norman Hackerman
- Dielectrics - William D. Brown, Dennis Hess, Vimal Desai, and M. Jamal Deen
- Electric fish, electric organ discharges, and electroreception - Theodore H. Bullock
- Electrochemical engineering - Richard C. Alkire and Thomas W. Chapman
- Electrochemical machining - Joseph McGeough
"Metal sulfide flotation concentrates can be treated in a number of ways. These include using pyrometallurgy, or smelting at high temperature, in which process the sulfur in the metal sulfide is oxidized with air or oxygen to sulfur dioxide, and molten metal is produced."
Materials-Science of which Chemical/Electrochemical Engineering is a part; is behind all the development of electronic components and manufacturing. The Backbone is Applied Science. A Super Capacitor or a Special RF Semiconductor can only be developed using the research and efforts of these scientists.
The Sciences or their study has been much nurtured and supported by some countries like the USA. This is the foundation on which many other Technologies like Electronics and Computing thrive. In many other countries this is many times not even perceived as its is not 'glamorous' and requires much efforts and dedication.
"If the Foundation of Applied Sciences is sound, the Building of Technology is Sturdy"
As said by -
Elektrick Power Jedi - Charge Minds with Electricity
Thursday, August 18, 2011
Museums are virtual Universities. 3D Scaled Interactive Scientific and Engineering Demonstrations in Tech Museums Inspire, Educate and Train many students on Science and Technology Subjects.
Such Live Interactive Demonstrations may be very useful for Maths and Economics as well. These are Subtle and Complex Sciences which need Gross Manifests or Exhibits to help youngsters grasp Ideas and Concepts easily.
PhysOrg - science and tech news
Publishing around 100 articles every business day, PhysOrg offers the most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. PhysOrg exclusive feature stories are original and not found elsewhere on the web.
Multimedia Physics - SchulPhysik
Physics and Physlets. Astronomy - planet, space weather, cosmos. Mathematics - algebra to statistics. Optics and electrical. Geophysics, Energy, Galileo.
Mike's Electric Stuff is an Online Electrical Vintage Tour, back in time.
Flinn Scientific - Science Activities - Sells educational science supplies. Site has especially useful information on lab safety and lab design. Physical Science Activities - Exciting experiments which illustrate important scientific concepts and are exciting for both you and your students
National Science Digital Library - NSDL was established by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2000 as an online library which directs users to exemplary resources for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and research.
Wednesday, August 17, 2011
Presented in a Easy to understand, layman language. This Energy and Electrical Basics is a must for all who want to save power and lead a Green Lifestyle.
Undertand your Appliance and The Energy Supplier. The way electricity is generated and reaches your home.
A class in basic electricity and how the electric utility industry generates and delivers power to customers. Designed primarily for use by utility field representatives who need to understand electrical principles. - Fundamentals of Electricity Covers the subject of motors from an explanation of how they work, to the advantages/disadvantages of adjustable speed drives, see Motors & Drives section.
Complete descriptive information on closed- and open-loop geothermal heat pump systems. Residential, multifamily and commercial applications are all covered. - Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
Wednesday, August 10, 2011
Sci-Spot.com - Accelerometer - An accelerometer is a device which measures acceleration; how fast it's speeding up. In the past an accelerometer could be a complex, bulky piece of equipment, but in
today's world, accelerometers are available as single ic's and use complex microscale machining technology.
The MMA7260Q is a 3-axis accelerometer - Tom Igoe - The MMA7260Q is a 3-axis accelerometer from Freescale Semiconductor.
Balancing robot needs gyroscope and accelerometer
ADXRS150 and ADXRS300 piezo-gyroscope integrated circuit, The gyro is very small at about 5mm square (about 0.3 inches square). You can see the small combo gyro PCB mounted vertically in the center section on the balancing robot
ADXL105 Lower-Noise Wider-Bandwidth Accelerometer - The ADXL105, a near-ideal kind of vibration sensor, eliminates significant problems with existing vibration sensors, such as piezoelectric and bulk capacitive sensors. Primary benefits derive from much lower cost, stable sensitivity as a function of frequency and temperature, ruggedness, and ease of use. Besides machine health and condition monitoring, it is particularly well suited for noise and vibration cancellation applications.
AccelR8 is a device for measuring acceleration - AccelR8 is a device for measuring acceleration. It can measure +/- 2 g. As it contains a microprocessor, it an also measure time.
A beginner's guide to accelerometers - By measuring the amount
of static acceleration due to gravity, you can find out the angle the device is tilted at with respect to the earth. By sensing the amount of dynamic acceleration, you can analyze the way the device is moving.
Society of Robots' tilt to servo control app - How does it
work? Inside an accelerator MEMS device are tiny micro-structures that bend due to momentum and gravity. When it experiences any form of acceleration, these tiny structures bend by an equivelent amount which can be electrically detected
David T.'s motor balancing experiments - Using an oscilloscope to measure AC vibration signals generated by an accelerometer (from Dimension Engineering).
Thursday, August 04, 2011
To make an analog design using log amps or multipliers, discovercircuits - four-quad is good for learning. Using a uP for math is better. Look at these links below. Build a Power Meter ! The Metrics for Going Green is with a Energy/Power/Watt meter.
Wednesday, August 03, 2011
Watlow Sensors, Processing and Heaters
'Watlow designs and manufactures industrial heaters, sensors and controllers - all of the components of a thermal system."
The SERIES F4 1⁄4 DIN industrial ramping temperature controller meets the requirements of the most demanding ramp soak controller processing applications.
This ramping temperature controller features a four line, high-definition LCD interface display for quick and easy profile programming and controller configuration.
SERIES F4 Ramping Controller
Watlow reference data provides information for amperage conversions, thermocouple types, RTD tolerances and more.
Watlow Ltd- Reference - Guides and Tutorials
Watlow is the leader in engineering and manufacturing custom commercial electric heaters. ... offer electric heating elements, industrial heaters..
Tuesday, August 02, 2011
Some Power Supply and RF blocks cannot be easily added inside as they have a silicon processing more specific to their applications. Laser trimmed Instrumentation Op-Amps, high accuracy resistor arrays, high value capacitors, magnetics and supporting chips are placed outside on the PCB.
The SOC can pack Digital Chips, Memory, A/D, D/A converters, uC, RAM and Custom programmable areas. For more specialized communications, analog and power requirements; Special SoC types can tackle RF and Power management within a chip because of proprietary silicon processing expertise.
System on a chip - Wiki
"A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems."
Programmable SoC offers an alternative to custom ASIC as you can make different products from the same chip, yet make products that are portable and low power. The software, pcb, user interface and support components has to be redesigned for every unique product. Many standard IPs are available for Design and Reuse.
Some of the early Philips (nxp) 8031 variations had integrated a lot of outer chips like A/D, D/A display driver etc. This made Programmable Industrial Instruments/Gadgets possible with just a few external components. Now many variations are available from chip manufacturers, with more speed, memory and peripherals inside. Futuristic gadgets may be intelligent, interactive, networked and portable. The SoC chip makes it all possible, by integrating all product functions within it except the user interface.
SoC with a Color LCD driver, Wi-Fi, USB, RAM and Flash capabilities....at last you have a Computer in a Chip. Better still Web-Chip.
Stratix IV FPGAs: Think AND, not OR
With 40 nm Stratix IV FPGAs you can reach new levels of system-on-a-chip (SoC) integration. Building on the advanced, proven Stratix III architecture, Stratix IV FPGAs deliver a high-density, feature-rich and high-performance core fabric. Combined with flexible I/Os, high-bandwidth transceivers, and memory interfaces,
Atmel AT91RM9200 is ARM920T-based
It has 16K-byte instruction and 16K-byte data cache memories, 16K bytes SRAM, 128K bytes ROM, External Bus Interface incl. SDRAM, Burst Flash and Static Memory Controllers, USB Device and Host Interfaces, Ethernet 10/100 BaseT MAC, Power Management Controller and much more...
Tuesday, July 19, 2011
Real Time ideally is instantaneous or in sync, in tandem. Not an Zepto Second lost. But in the real world many analog inputs or result outputs can be processed a lot slower. So it is more like, How 'real time' you want, how cost-effective a real-time solution can be provided. If the analog input is slow and the system inertia is high and the user response time is limited by his persistence of vision, you need to make a system just a bit faster, even Microseconds delay may be fine. In yet another case it may be pico seconds.
A web page in a browser delays a few milliseconds, you will not notice; but when you talk over the phone a small delay, echo or glitch can be unpleasant.
In a weather station the wind speed, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are measured as analog signals using special sensors. This is then converted to digital data and fed to an embedded system or computer. The computer software analyzes the data and arrives at some predictions based on past patterns. This system in its simplest form, may not be DSP, but it is the beginning of this science, the first step.
Audio, Video, Image Processing, Speech Processing, Biometrics, etc. All these can use DSP to Produce an Output or generate a Result in a more repeatable and controllable manner than analog.
Real world signals or inputs are analog, Like the RGB color gradients in a Image or Video, the Harmonics in a Sound and The Noise in a Radar Signal. When these signals are processed in the conventional manner, many stages of semiconductors and Passive RLC blocks are needed and fine tuning them is delicate. Aging (magnetics-electrolytics), Vibration, Temperature, Humidity may alter the tuned parameters. Manufacturing and testing them is also tedious.
In a DSP solution we first convert the analog signals into digital streams. It could be multiple analog sources. Audio may need a slow A/D Conversion, Processing TV signals have to be faster.
An Analog to Digital convertor for an Image Processor in an Object Recognition System may be slow, but the data may has to be processed quickly and results of match or mismatch generated fast. If this system has to work with say coffee beans on a fast moving conveyor.... Check if they have been roasted well or not, even pop off beans that may affect the flavor of that batch, Then both scan and result has to be very fast.
If a Supersonic plane has to watch, prepare and react for all objects flying close by, the Real Time response of the system puts the design and technology to test. Even the software has to be lean and ultra fast, to react before it is too late.
Digital Signal Processing - MIT OpenCourseWare
Digital Signal Processing begins with a discussion of the analysis and representation of discrete-time signal systems, including discrete-time convolution, difference equations, the z-transform, and the discrete-time Fourier transform. Emphasis is placed on the similarities and distinctions between discrete-time. The course proceeds to cover digital network and nonrecursive (finite impulse response) digital filters. Digital Signal Processing concludes with digital filter design and a discussion of the fast Fourier transform algorithm for computation of the discrete Fourier transform.
Digital Signal Processing Overview
A digital signal processing system takes a continuous sound wave as input, feeds it through an analog low-pass filter (an anti-aliassing filter) to remove all frequencies above half the sampling rate (see Nyquist's sampling theorem).
Digital Signal Processing Control Lab: DSP-59000
Dual processors (TMS-320C5416 & TMS-320LF2407); Built-in audio/video, MP3, Ethernet, Keypad, RS-232/RS-485, temperature control, function generator, PWM , experiment modules.
- Digital Signal Processing at Rice
- DSP - Texas Instruments - TI
- DSPRelated.com Resource
- Digital Signal Processing - Wikibooks
- Bores Signal Processing
- A Beginner's Guide to Digital Signal Processing
- Digital signal processing - Wikipedia
- The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing
- Digital Signal Processing - ARRL
Monday, July 18, 2011
- New Test Equipment
- Refurbished Test Equipment
- Used Test Equipment
Tucker Electronics continues to offer New and Refurbished Oscilloscopes, Analyzers, Meters, Counters and Power Supplies from quality manufacturers.
Here is a page i scanned from an old 1986 Tucker Catalog. Standards and Equipments .
|From Electronic Catalogs|
Measurement Fundamentals - National Instruments
National Instruments Wi-Fi DAQ devices combine IEEE 802.11 wireless or Ethernet communication, direct sensor connectivity, and the flexibility of NI LabVIEW software for remote monitoring and control of electrical, physical, mechanical, and acoustical signals.
NI Wi-Fi DAQ features and to learn how you can simplify wireless remote measurements without compromising on the security or performance of a cabled data acquisition solution.
You can learn about every niche/domain in Electronic Technologies. You also need to Specialize in a niche which resonates within you. The skill sets need to be broad, in case you find less opportunities in the specialization you have. This keeps changing all the time.
Here are two pages from an old OK Industries catalog, now part of Jonard Industries. They have wire wrapping systems, which help build test systems, custom solutions easily. They have many Tools which improve productivity for the Electronics Manufacturing Industries.
"Jonard Industries Corp is a World Class Manufacturer of Precision Hand Tools for the Telecom, Computer, Military and Electronic Industries."
Test Instruments bench rack from OK Industries
|From Electronic Catalogs|
This is a Mini Electric Drill of OK Industries
|From Electronic Catalogs|
Tuesday, July 12, 2011
The Process Control Education Web Site
The Reference includes Sample Process Control Course, Instrumentation for Process Control, WEB-Based Educational Resources for Process Control and Process Operability.
The material above can also be found on the -Process Control, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000 - ISBN 0-07-039362-1 a textbook by T. Marlin.
delabs Notes -
Industrial Automation enables Higher skill levels for workers and reduces danger of accidents too. Now the emphasis is for Energy Efficient Industrial Production, not only to save Energy Costs but as a Social Responsibility.
Industries should not pollute water bodies and the atmosphere, this brings us to new process control area of Air and Water Quality Measurement and regulation.
This leads us to Sensors-Transmitter-Controller-Outputs-Actuators. Where each is an independent electronic/electrical component of an entire Process Control system. The Process could be Temperature, Pressure, Speed, or Level.
IntegraXor SCADA - Create the interactive graphical interface for multi-device compatibility.
Industrial Automation encompasses many such Process Control Systems to form a Engineered System Solution for an Entire production line with different stages and process types.
At the machine end, the control has to be real time and highly reliable, dedicated controllers both Analog and Microcontrollers based are used. Analog as a fallback/override/trip or backup controller in case Embedded system gets stuck/fails.
These controllers or transmitters also send the data of the process back to a center control panel room. The actuators and outputs also have an override from the control panel. Sometimes Intelligent controllers at machine end can be remotely tweaked/tuned by Control room. This is possible due to Embedded systems and Flash., It also can pose problems if misused. Using SCADA such networking of these process control systems and Monitoring, Tweaking, Data Collection and Analysis is possible.
Come Internet or Web and Wireless, the scenario changes entirely. The Control room stays where it is, the Tablets can Access and utilize the SCADA and entire plant at the machine end also. The Control room can be carried around with limited access. This evolves further to that extent that an expert engineer can check the status of the Product Line from any Web Browser and suggest remedial actions to the others at the factory. He can even see the status on mobile devices. Now study the Resources below.
Red Lion Controls - HMI and Process Control - HMI operator interface panels for PLCs, motor drives.
Sielco Sistemi - Winlog Pro is a SCADA/HMI software package - TCP/IP Client Server support, Intranet/Internet architecture.
See Some Industrial Grade SCADA Solutions here
- Bentek Systems - Wireless SCADA & Automation Solutions
- Yokogawa - FAST/TOOLS R9.03 Web-based SCADA & Process Management
wSCADA - Internet SCADA - Office Factory Integration - Online Automation
Industrial Process parameters, production flow or work status, material offtake, processing of products, incoming inspection status and quality process monitoring. All these need to be interfaced with the ERP and access to Mobile devices like Smartphones and remote Computers provided. This helps smooth micro management of a industry. Some Interfaces may have supervisory control and others just graphs and progress charts. Depending on the person and his work or machine area.
The data and presentation of complex data (by graphs and charts) enhances analysis and timely decision making. Then these solutions will be productive, and be an asset to an existing system. To ensure that; software or webware developers have to be supported by the domain experts having decades of hands on experience on the shop floor. Else; if it is built on theory and some statistics, the result may appear good and work well for small or standard configurations, but in demanding, changing, real life scenario, it may fail to deliver the best.
WebSCADA - Automation Systems - Process Control, Historian, Event Alarm. WebSCADA provides automation platforms on the Internet.
NetBiter - Monitoring and control through web pages - Monitor and control over the Ethernet using web pages.
Monday, July 11, 2011
Community College Education Resource
These pages have NDT study material for college and Science Educational Pages for High School.
Students can get ideas for original project work on one of these concepts. Choose one area and then research in the web. When i had to build Equipment, it would be difficult to get the catalogs and datasheets of Materials or Methods. Now master the art or searching online, then create your database. Study, Learn and Build !
Direct Read Pocket Dosimeter
More at - NDT Resource Center
Wednesday, July 06, 2011
Festo Bionic Learning Network
"Bionic design principles serve as the basis for the development of new gripper technology for flexible adaptive grasping in the mechanical handling industry..."
Here Festo is helping students of Robotics and Automation learn from nature's intricate and sophisticated Nueromuscular Systems. I am using the word Nueromuscular in a different way, here it means Wires (Nerves), Control System (Brain, Spinal cord), Solenoids & Valves (Muscular System).
These Bionic Systems can also be used the other way around, they can be designed for Reinforcing/Replacing Weak or Lost Limbs. Even a person with a handicap, can do most tasks on his own, aided by the Bionic Appendages.
Study These Resources to understand Bionics which is closely related to Robotics and Automation.
- Bionics - Replacing biological parts with artificial parts
- Berkeley Bionics - Lower extremity exoskeletons
- Bionics for the Evil Genius: 25 Build-it-Yourself Projects
- Bionics and Bio-Inspired Technology
- Project Bionics - The History of Artificial Organs
- DLR - Institut für Robotik und Mechatronik - Bionics
- IEEE Spectrum: Bionics
Saturday, July 02, 2011
Electrical Engineering as a Technology has evolved and branched out into many specialized domains. With the coming of Semiconductors and the Advancements of Material Technologies, Electronics Engineering emerged as a foundation or a Horizontal for many new Verticals.
One such Vertical is Instrumentation, here you know Industrial Process Control is one and the other is Test and Measurement. The third branch we learn about today is "Analytical Instrumentation Technologies" which is more like an Oblique, it Cuts thru Physics, Chemistry and Biology and many of its sub-branches. It also supports the areas called Life Sciences, Bio Technology, GeoSciences, Materials Science etc. .
Here i have posted some analytical instruments ... Laboratory Analytical, - Research and Lab Instruments, Bio and Earth Science. - EEMetric.com - Test and Measurement Instrumentation.
Start Learning -
- How to become an analytical chemist
- Analytical Instruments Library
- Analytical Science Instrumentation - Virtual tours
- Analytical Chemistry Springboard
- Analytical Sciences Digital Library
- All about Electrochemistry
- Exploring the Nanoworld: University of Wisconsin
- Physical Chemistry Animations
- The Physics Hypertextbook
Friday, July 01, 2011
Ethernet Networking itself is complex, A self healing, hack proof and plug-play Wireless Router has to be the first step to make safe robots.
Just imagine a Wireless Router or even a Internet Router as easy to tune as a FM radio, no entering numbers, no admin with browser. Just keep it in a room and all gadgets and computers form a fuzzy network, all by themselves. The very idea of technology is to make things simple, cost-effective and efficient.
The real need of robots now is to avoid Humans in Hazardous Environment. Right from Outer Space to working in a Plant with Toxic Chemical Gases, Even machinery and equipment that injures the limbs or damages the eyes.
Virtualization in Robotics -
If workers can wear a coat of sensors with force feedback actuators, they can control a semi-automatic robot in Real-Time. This enables a worker to navigate a robot into a hazardous environment, perform an upgrade or make repairs. An accident or mishap will damage the robot and it can be easily rebuilt or maintained.
The robot is automatic and will have reflexes defined by software. The wireless networking will connect the Robot mechanically to a human in a safe enclosure. This makes the Worker present virtually inside the Robot, because he is connected by optical, aural and mechanical-muscle feedback-sensors. This will create Virtual Anthropomorphic Robots for Industrial use and may help to finally develop Fuzzy Robots or Androids, which is still in the relm of science fiction.
Related Reading -
Friday, June 24, 2011
Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)
These are nice Mini Reference Books that can build the Learning of EE students. Some interesting booklets - Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement; Intro. to Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping; Microelectronics and Test Equipment.
Communications students see Wave Propagation Transmission Lines, and Antennas; Microwave Principles and Fiber Optics. Technician's Handbook and Test Methods and Practices are a must read.
Electronic and Computer Engineering
Here you can find some free books in PDF format and also Books with sample chapters, you can Review and Buy if you like.
Some of the Books on Embedded Systems and Communications are quite good and even the sample chapters will bring an appetite to study the subject and buy the Book.
Portal:Electronics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is the place to start in wikipedia. It has a summary of the various content areas in wiki. A Selected design, Consumer showcase, Selected article and all the other bookmarks for the electronics enthusiast, student, professional.
Thursday, June 16, 2011
Learn About Electronics - Eric Coates
The Step-by-Step Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism is very simple and full of nice Explaining Pictures. This will work up your appetite to learn more about the Physics and Chemistry in Electronics.
- Section 3.1 Electromagnetic Induction.
- In section 2.1 Capacitors.
Sunday, June 05, 2011
The Enhancement of Mains power system for Homes and Small Business is critical. The population is more now and the use of electricity for more appliances becomes inevitable, this makes power shortages imminent.
The power to Homes can be distributed by two types of phase lines (live), a common neutral and the usual earth. High Phase is for Heaters and Motors and some lighting too. This phase can be shut down on power failure, load management or over use. The other is the Green Energy line, a low current phase which never fails! It is used only for lighting and small and light electronic appliances. It is a limited energy line. That means, so much kWhr for a month, beyond which the line will trip off for the month. This Green Line is augmented by solar, wind or tidal electricity. That way this Green Line is Uninterrupted, but Energy Limited. This will bring a sense of responsibility on the consumer, who will plan the usage of his Green Power Line carefully.
The other High Phase raw line can go off due to Black-out and Brown-outs, when there is a shut down or load balancing. This can also be energy limited at a higher threshold, depending on the number of people in the small business or home. Big Companies have their own Mini Power stations to manage the Power problems, Here also a Green Line can be provided in addition to the mini power stations.
The sensible and frugal, energy consumer can depend on his Green Line to manage his office or home, with no interruption of power. All Home users, Commercial Establishments, Factories and Companies have to become responsible, frugal and austere in the consumption of both electricity and fossil fuels. This not only saves the costs for the company, but the society (read customers) which is the environment they depend on, is also sustained.
Happy Healthy People means more Customers/Consumers, that implies Economic Growth and a Vibrant/Resilient Stock Market.
Power Electronics shows the way - Power Electronic Circuits.
Friday, June 03, 2011
The objective of this textbook is to develop the RF circuit design aspects in such a way that the need of transmission line principles is made clear without adopting an electromagnetic field approach. Therefore, no EM background is necessary beyond a first year undergraduate physics course in fields and waves as provided by most colleges and universities. Students equipped with the knowledge of basic circuit theory and/or an exposure to microelectronics can use this book and cover the entire spectrum from the basic principles of transmission .
This practical and comprehensive book introduces RF circuit design fundamentals while emphasizing a circuit-based approach.
Covers a number of important topics, including RF Amplifier Designs; Matching Networks; Scattering parameters; Smith Chart; Oscillators and Mixers; common filter types; the high-frequency behavior of common circuit components; the theory of distributed parameters through a discussion on Transmission Lines; and active/passive RF circuits. It also provides features to make the material easier to digest, including self-contained chapters that require only simple mathematical skills (calculus) and examples that are strategically dispersed throughout the chapter to clarify and explain the theoretical developments.
Thursday, May 19, 2011
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT
Students can enhance their learning even at home after the classes using these materials. This will help you grasp what happens in the college the next day.
It is also important to keep yourself physically fit. Some jogging, swimming, cycling and light workout will even strengthen the nervous system.
I would not like to write this here, but i have to. My own experience. Do not build muscles for looks or abnormal growths. Some use hormones, over exercise and even some medicines for artificial growth. At a later age it causes lot of problems due to accelerated aging. Even athletes should refrain from these for the long term interest of their health.
Whatever the struggle between technologies, The future communications will be just Broadband Wireless Devices with Voice, Data and Web all in one. The intermediate technologies we see today, the Transitional Technologies are part of a Large Learning Curve. The future may be more of Optics, WiMax and more like Any Device can do Anything. Not Convergence but more an Intermeshed Collage.
RF Microwave and Wireless Networks
M2M, Communications, WSN, IoT, Wi-Fi, Device Networking, Fiber Optics.
This RF is also a Tough Science and needs Authentic and Highly Skilled Engineers to design and develop the technologies for the future. The Budget of the Average consumer will be less, the appetite enormous. The Business Models complex and very challenging. The customer potential is 100% and it will work only if it is affordable and planned carefully. It is not as easy as it looks.
Read and Learn More -
Time and Frequency Circuits and Articles including frequency synthesis and conversion.Spreadsheets/ Programs to calculate pll response, phase noise under vibration, and others.Wenzel Associates Technical Library
Resources for Radio, Radar, RF, Microwave, & Wireless Engineering. Collection of links to various application notes for different RF Vendors. Links to RF equations, technical data sheets, math notes and much more. RF Cafe - Microwave & Wireless Engineering
Cellular and PCS phones, pagers and two-way radios, radio spectrum. Wireless Telecommunications FCC
"The IEEE WCET certification shows that the individual has demonstrated mastery of the internationally recognized body of wireless communication knowledge…" IEEE WCET - Wireless Communications
RF chips, white papers, FCC, a variety of specialty books on various wireless/ spread spectrum / RF areas, and a wide range of other information.Spread Spectrum Scene Online
A collection of exceptional resources that will prove useful in your spread spectrum and other wireless projects, ranging from spread spectrum & CDMA tutorials, theory, and circuit diagrams, to development tools, OEM products, and consultants. Spread Spectrum and RF Resources
- RF RFIC Microwave Systems Tutorials
- Microwave Journal Online
- Microwaves RF design articles
- NPL - RF & Microwave
- RF and Communications Fundamentals
It is almost like, every person is a potential user for a Handheld Computer. Which is not only a communicator but more important, News, Knowledge and Information is at his fingertips. This is an empowerment that makes a better worker, student, citizen or a businessman.
delabs Technologies - Ideas of delabs - 2010
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
This book provides complete coverage of important analog devices and how to use them in designing linear circuits, and serves as a useful learning tool and reference for design engineers involved in analog and mixed-signal design.
Linear Circuit Design Handbook - Hank Zumbahlen
Sensors, RF/IF Circuits, Converters. Analog Filters. Power Management and …
- Chapter 5: Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems
- Chapter 7: Data Converter Support Circuitry
- Chapter 11: Overvoltage Effects on Analog Integrated Circuits
- Chapter 12: Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design Issues
Tuesday, April 05, 2011
Math.com - Calculators and Tools
- Calculators and Tools
- Math Practice
- Formulas & Tables
- Wonders of Math
"An Engineer without some working knowledge of Maths is like a Plumber without a Pipe Wrench. Hobby Enthusiasts learn this science, even as they create and fix things."
Educationists should have two approaches to Math. One the conventional, which is still in practice in many developing countries. The other, that is new, which is interactive, edutainment based, is needed for more than 60 % of the students.
Elektrick the Power Jedi
The brain works differently in various people, because there are mainly two types of brains. One is Predominantly Creative/Practical, the other is Analytical/Logical. Both types are present in each individual, one type is dominant; which define their learning abilities.
When only a traditional approach is taken, many are deprived of a Mathematics Education. Educational Methods have to become realistic and innovate.
Thursday, March 31, 2011
Vernier Software and Technology
"Vernier co-founder, David Vernier, had been a high school physics and physical sciences teacher for eight years when he began programming his first Precision Timer software application. David's creativity and his passion for science education, combined with his wife Christine's business acumen, were the driving forces behind the early years of Vernier Software & Technology….."
Texas Instruments and Vernier
Shown on right is a Balancer robot that uses a Vernier Low-g Accelerometer to measure the tilt of a long beam. At the start, there are 10 gram weights on each side of the horizontal beam. As weights are added or removed, the beam unbalances and tilts.
A Welath of Information is at the site - Dr James B. Calvert Associate Professor Emeritus of Engineering, University of Denver and Registered Professional Engineer, State of Colorado. An EE-Encyclopedia Almost.
Engineering and Technology - James B. Calvert
"An extensive series of pages based on experiments that can be done in the personal or home laboratory. The emphasis is on enjoyment and intellectual pleasure, but there is much practical matter as well."
Electronics Index - Includes vacuum tubes and cathode-ray tubes, with many experiments for the home laboratory. Nixie clocks too.
The Atmel AVR microprocessors are very similar functionally to the PIC microprocessors, with the same range in size from 8-bit, 8-pin PDIP to 32-bit processors with 100 pins, and similar features.
Atmel AVR 8-Bit Microcontrollers
The ATtiny13A will operate from a supply voltage as low as 1.8V (maximum clock speed 4 Mhz), and with a full 20 MHz clock speed at 4.5V and above. The current drain is much reduced at the lower supply voltages and clock frequencies.
It is easy to measure moderate magnetic fields using a Hall sensor, such as the Allegro A1302 linear Hall sensor, available from Jameco. A PIC12F675 can digitize the output of the sensor and display it on a serial LCD display, such as the Newhaven NHD-0216K3Z-FL-GBW 2 line x 16 digit display. This system is shown breadboarded in the figure at the right, measuring the field between the poles of a horseshoe magnet.
Tuesday, March 22, 2011
A Sound understanding of Physics and Chemistry is needed for stepping into “Electricity and Magnetism”. We have to move young minds into Electronics even before High School, as a part of Science itself.
e-Learning Resources – Physics at Exeter
- Practical Electronics II and Electronics for Measurement Systems
- Feedback and Temperature Control
- Computer Interfaces for Instrumentation Systems
- Troubleshooting Op-Amp Circuits
The ability to diagnose and cure problems in a systematic manner is an exceptionally valuable skill. In PHY2028 students are given a heap of components, a breadboard, and measuring equipment.
Feedback and Temperature Control
System Model, Types of Feedback Control, On-Off Control, Proportional+Derivative Control, Proportional+Integral+Derivative Control, Proportional+Integral Control, Third-Order Systems..
ET the Technology Interface
"Use of a PC Printer Port for Control and Data Acquisition by Peter H. Anderson Department of Electrical Engineering Morgan State university Abstract: A PC printer port is an inexpensive and yet powerful platform for implementing projects dealing with the control of real world peripherals...."
Use of a PC Printer Port for Control and Data Acquisition
"Building an 8-bit PC-Based Logic Analyzer by Kyle C. Quinnell Department of Engineering Technology New Mexico State University Abstract This paper presents a way of using a PC computer as a an 8-bit Logic Analyzer...."
Building an 8-bit PC-Based Logic Analyzer:
An excellent study area for both Students and Teachers in the EE Domain. The important part of practical experimentation and industrial interaction is of great value to students.
A student can also on his own have a small lab in his house and start building and programming to supplement his academic training. You can build your lab from scratch, build your own test equipment. Start Somewhere. Build something and sharpen skills.