Saturday, November 14, 2015

DesignSoft - Learn with Edison Newton Tina

Edison - provides a unique new environment for learning electricity and electronics. Teachers, students and electronics enthusiasts can use digitally scanned photorealistic components, a solderless breadboard, virtual instruments, sound and animation.......

DesignSoft - Learn with Edison Newton Tina

Select realistic batteries, resistors, diodes, LEDs, transistors, logic gates, flip-flops, and even microcontrollers & integrated circuits all easily available on the shelves of your multimedia lab. Drag them onto your "breadboard" and wire them together with your mouse. Your circuit begins working immediately so you can test and troubleshoot it with virtual instruments. In addition, Edison automatically prepares a standard schematic diagram and displays it simultaneously.

Tina - The Complete Electronics Lab

Powerful yet affordable software package for analyzing, designing and real time testing analog, digital, VHDL, MCU, and mixed electronic circuits and their PCB layouts. You can also analyze RF, communication, optoelectronic circuits, test & debug microcontroller applications.

A unique feature of TINA that you can bring your circuit to life with the optional USB controlled TINALab II hardware which turns your computer into a powerful, multifunction T&M instrument. Electrical engineers will find TINA an easy to use, high performance tool, while educators will welcome its unique features for the training environment.

DesignSoft - Learn with Edison Newton Tina

Newton - provides a completely new way of teaching and learning physics by exploring kinematics and dynamics in 3D. Build, manipulate or investigate real-life 3D physics experiments interactively, solve problems, and more.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Optical Retro-Reflective Proximity Switch

This circuit is used to detect objects by reflected infrared light. It can be built into a cylindrical enclosure just like an inductive proximity switch.
This is also useful as a level detector for colored liquids like oil. This has some immunity to ambient sunlight as it detects ac pulses.

Optical Retro-Reflective Proximity Switch
This is a Hand Crafted PCB Artwork done by a PCB Vendor years back, this method may be used even today.

Optical Proximity Switch - PCB

PCB Design -
This Layout may have many jumpers and may need to be cleared of Hairline shorts which has happened after i scanned it, cleaned it and enhanced it using image manipulation software.

This PCB would go into a 30mm Nickel Plated Brass threaded tube, with Epoxy or Teflon ends. These were turned components as quantities made were small. An Optical Proximity Sensor that would fit the same place as the eddy current or Inductive sensors, in existing machines. It could work a longer distance and could detect Non-Metals and even translucent fluids.

Thursday, November 05, 2015

Pressure Measurement and Control

Pressure is the next most important parameter after Temperature. In Hydraulics and Pneumatics, the measurement, indication, control and logging-charting of pressure is indispensable.

Popular Pressure Sensors are based on either Piezoresistive or Strain-Gauge Technologies. Strain-Gauge types can be Metal Foil or Semiconductor Film.

Pressure and Flow Control Applications - delabs

The Analog Strip Chart Recorder is used in Simple Systems where a Record or Report has to be generated. Data Loggers and PC based Data Acquisition Systems expand this capability by making the Data Electronically Accessible for Charting-Analysis and Reporting using database applications.
The Liquid-Fluid Level in containers of uniform cross-section can be computed by measuring the pressure of the fluid head. In cases where levels of semi-volatile fluids are measured, sensors with Micro-watts of power usage or data transmission is required to protect from sparking related accidents. Even Zener Barriers can help reduce risks due to wrong connections or cross connection due to cable damages.

In the field, due to various constrains many safety practices can be overlooked or circumvented. The Sensors and System design must be over-engineered in some cases to safeguard man-machine assets.


Pressure Control

Monday, October 19, 2015

The Philbrick Archive and Operational Amplifier

This site is a free non-profit repository of materials from GAP/R George A Philbrick Researches, the company that launched the commercial use of the Operational Amplifier in 1952.

The Philbrick Archive and Operational Amplifier

The Philbrick Archive - Bob Pease and The OpAmp

The first commercial Operational amplifier was the K2-W op-amp. It was based on the amplifier used in the Philbrick modular Analog-Computor "black boxes ".

First Opamp K2-W op-amp

That amplifier's basic circuit architecture, in turn, was probably inspired by an earlier amplifier designed by Loebe Julie (Dan Sheingold and Bob Pease, thanks for helping me with this information). The K2-W Operational Amplifier entered the commercial market in 1952.

Saturday, October 17, 2015

Science Hobbyist – Amateur Science

Science Hobbyist – Amateur Science

Amateur Science, Cool Science, Gravity, Energy, Fusion, Tesla Coil Page. Neodymium Supermagnets, Science Toys. Significantly Worthwhile Books, Science Fair Ideas, Science Demos Articles, Experiments, Exhibits, Kids’ Science Projects, The Science Club.

Electronics Hobbyist

Projects for beginners, articles on electronics and electrical science, Tesla coils, electrostatic devices, and resource links for the hobbyist and educator.

William J Beaty

William J. Beaty

Research Engineer HV/Electrostatics specialist, Lecturer, Sci. Exhibit Designer, Textbook Consultant, Amateur Physicist

“In the past I’ve spent time as an embedded designer and software engineer, consulted on textbooks, lectured about electricity education, designed science projects for kids, and built physics exhibits while running the electronics dept. at the Museum of Science in Boston.”

Friday, October 16, 2015

MakerSpace Hackerspace and TinkerSpace

I am using the word MakerSpace for the same Hackerspace. I would rather call them plain TinkerSpace, where youngsters take apart, fix, build Hardware, Software, Webware, Robots and Machines.


Sony used to get the abandoned ww2 radios in the islands to design, make and sell their first radio units. Honda used to fix bikes from europe and america to gain the skills and mutate to a global giant. Take apart, reverse engineer, fix and learn.

Hackerspaces are community-operated physical places, where people can meet and work on their projects.This website is for 'Anyone and Everyone' who wants to share their hackerspace with international hacker's'paces.

Every kid is a born hacker and he starts with his toys, his mom does not like that, but he does not stop. One day he is building something pretty big.

Dallas Makerspace Wiki - Membership based, non-profit, shared community workshop and laboratory.

Milwaukee Makerspace - Social club for people who like build, invent, tinker and/or collect new skills and expand their minds.

In the late nineties and the early 2000. There were Hobby DIY Groups, Ham Radio Groups and Learning Electronics Communities. Hackerspaces by function, may be as old as technology itself. People working in a garage or shop to learn skills or build-invent something, but with different names like "Metal Tinkering Club" etc..

Recently the people at Make created a more organized and sustainable movement, that is helping the "MakerSpace" Phenomenon Emerge - Makezine - MAKE brings the do-it-yourself mindset to all the technology in your life.

Friday, August 21, 2015

Quanser - Control Design Solutions

They design and manufacture advanced systems for real-time control design and implementation used in education, research and industry.

Quanser - Control Design Solutions

They demonstrate the state of the art for control systems plants for the most demanding applications in control, mechatronics, robotics, etc. Used both in Advanced Education and Research Labs.

Manufacturers of robotic and mechatronic systems including high quality haptic devices. Advanced systems for real-time control design and implementation.

Each device in the Mechatronic Controls Collection is suitable for teaching and research. These robust systems are ideal for teaching fundamentals and advanced enough for complex research.

QNET Mechatronic Sensors Trainer

QNET Mechatronic Sensors Trainer

The QNET Mechatronic Sensors (MECHKIT) Trainer is ideally suited to teach and demonstrate the fundamentals of interfacing with mechatronic sensors.

Active Suspension system

This Active Suspension system consists of three masses, or plates. Each mass slides along stainless steel shafts using linear bearings and is supported by a set of springs.

The Active Suspension comes with the Quanser-developed courseware. A comprehensive Laboratory Guide, together with quick start resources....

Quanser
119 Spy Court Markham, Ontario, L3R 5H6 Canada.

Thursday, August 20, 2015

Sun Equipment Corporation - Training Systems

Kits and Custom Equipment Developer/Provider for Training and Industry, Engineering design and Development Lab Support.

Sun Equipment Corporation - Training Systems

Sun Equipment Corporation - Training Systems

Dual processors (TMS-320C5416 & TMS-320LF2407). Built-in audio/video, MP3, Ethernet, Keypad, RS-232/RS-485, temperature control, function generator, PWM , experiment modules

Design, simulate, program, print, check and verify ispPAC-20 IC programs through the printer port.

Digital Signal Processing Control Lab: DSP-59000

Built-in modules include input bias, microphone, amplifier, decay, adder, substractor, integration, filter, band width control, bridge and temperature sensor, VCO, PWM, Delta-Sigma modulation, D/A converter, widow comparator, absolute-value circuit, Voltage monitor, temperature monitor, light measurement, current transmit interface, feedback control of voltage and current, analog multiplexer, SPI control and etc.

ispPAC20 Programmable Analog IC Development Lab

Sun Equipment Corporation
1352 S. Grove Ave., Suite A, Ontario, CA 91761, USA.

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

RCA - Radio Corporation of America - History

The Professor, Talking Machine, Wireless Becomes Radio, Color Television, Nipper and Chipper and More RCA History at....

RCA - Radio Corporation of America - Wayback Machine snapshot of RCA History.

Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian electrical engineer, transmitted the first wireless signal in 1895. By the turn of the century he had formed telegraph companies in England and opened the first wireless office in New York City. In 1901, Marconi telegraphed the letter "S" across the Atlantic Ocean. The U.S. Navy was so impressed that it replaced a flock of carrier pigeons with the "wireless" for ship-to-shore communications.

Two years after inventing the phonograph, Edison brought the world the incandescent light bulb. Thirteen years later, his start-up electric company would merge with the Thomson-Houston Electric Company and be renamed General Electric.

RCA - Radio Corporation of America

In 1929, RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company, then the world's largest manufacturer of phonographs (including the famous "Victrola") and phonograph records. This included a majority ownership of the Victor Company of Japan, or JVC. The new subsidiary then became RCA-Victor. With Victor, RCA acquired New World rights to the Nipper trademark. This Trademark is also the trademark for the British music & entertainment company HMV who now display nipper in silhouette.

In the early 1920s, David Sarnoff publicly speculated on the possibility of "every farmhouse equipped not only with a sound-receiving device but with a screen that would mirror the sights of life." The idea of television was not new, and mechanical systems had demonstrated crude pictures. But it was Sarnoff's historic meeting with engineer Vladimir Zworykin that set the stage for RCA's success at electronic television transmission and reception.

Wikipedia - RCA - Radio Corporation of America

Tuesday, July 07, 2015

Measureall Workbench Test Instrument

This was a Student Project of mine, it is a very basic instruments that could do most of the tasks on a test bench.

Measureall - Test & Measuring Instrument

The cabinet used, was available as a part of a Hi-Fi DIY System, The Range and Mode switches were Modular Stackable Interlocked MultiPole Switches. The rest of the Interface were wirewound pots, jacks, sockets and plugs. The front panel was Engraved Acrylic, the panel was the toughest issue we tackled.

MeasureAll Benchtop Instrument

I wanted it to look well engineered, at least on the outside. It was a total analog instrument except for the digital indication of ICL7107. Thanks to 'Intersil Hot Ideas' Applications Book.
The above belong to an instrument Measureall shown below.

Monday, July 06, 2015

Regulated Power Supply 30V 5A

This is a Regulated 0-30 V DC Power Supply manufactured by me in small numbers, 0-30V 5A and 5V -5A. It had a Switching Preregulator. This keeps the Vce across Transistor Bank at the Back of Instrument, at the lowest possible level, in order to keep them Cool. When Vce and Ic both are more in a Power transistor it will get heated more, then the efficiency of power supply is low.

Power Supplies Section - delabs

Variable Regulated Power Supply

The Output had both Constant Current Control and Constant Voltage Control. The CC control is also a Short circuit protection. The Output was protected from outside voltages damaging output circuits even when equipment is switched off. The back panel is a finned anodized black aluminum heat sink with many transistors.

The catalog that was made to market this product was made without computers around late 80s.


It was a Black and White catalog and was also mailed to many firms to build awareness of the product.


I looked for the circuits to scan them, i could not find it. I made-n-sold quite a few of them years ago. All of them work well even today as i over-rated most components. The cabinet was Steel for EMI-RFI Immunity, it was painted with Stipple Matt Powder Coating, the Cabinet maker had just learnt to give such a finish to his boxes.

Thursday, July 02, 2015

Temperature Calibrator Milli Volt Source

This is a Milli-Volt and Milli-Amp Source for Calibration of Temperature Measurement and Control Instruments using Thermocouples. There is also a Passive Variable Resistance Source for Simulating a PT-100 RTD Sensor.

Current Source mA for calibration

Temperature Calibrator

This calibrator was a simple solution i built. This instrument itself was calibrated by Instruments like the Calibrators from Omega which are the best you can get.

Instruments used in Calibration

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

RTD PT100 Transmitter and Multiplexer

This is a RTD Pt-100 Transmitter, It can Convert Thermocouple mV or RTD mV to 4-20 mA Current Transmitter. The part numbers on Circuit and silk screen may not match. But the PCB may be usable. The output is a current source and not a current sink. It goes to a 4-20mA Mux with a common ground. The Circuit RTD-Pt-100-Transmitter Circuit.

RTD 3-W Mains Power 4-20 mA Transmitter

This low-cost transmitter was made to send RTD information in a 4-20mA over long distance. The 4-20mA was the input to a Analog-Mux which interfaced to a GE-Fanuc PLC system and a 486 Computer. The Analog Multiplexer Built around CD4051 was was controlled by PLC to get data from numerous channels. This reduced the cost of the System. This is ok when Real-Time Acquisition is not required. The Analog 4-20 to 4-20 Mux-Buffer circuit can be seen at Industrial Process Control Circuits.

RTD Transmitter 4-20 mA

This was done as customer budget could not afford dedicated analog input modules for every channel. There were more than 50 Inputs. The thermal inertia of system did not need a real time or fast correction.

The PNGs of PCB is 600dpi 16 color. It is to be scaled appropriately.

Thursday, June 11, 2015

Mini RTD Pt100 Three Wire Transmitter

These are the circuits and boards of a Mini Temperature Transmitter for a Platinum hundred ohms temperature Sensor.

Transmitter RTD

The customer wanted a two wire system, this needs low power opamps which were ten times the price. If this transmitter works at 3mA it could have been two wire. Those parts were in short supply and the budget of customer was low. So i made it with regular opamps but three wire. The customer was satisfied as he got a cost effective solution. But now the situation of markets and products are different.

RTD  Three Wire Transmitter

If you need to transmit the temperature from a high voltage area or toxic environment. You will need to hermetically seal the transmitters, convert the Voltage to frequency, frequency to IR LED flashes or RF. This can be then remotely monitored. Then the transmitter has to be battery-solar operated, low power too. ICL7135 is a simple solution. It has a serial output that can be used to Drive IR Leds. Remotely sense these flashes in a Micro-controller and you have a reading. You may be able to use optic-fibers too. Where volatile liquids are present so that the risks of sparks can be eliminated.

3 Wire Transmitter RTD

More at Process Control Circuits

This is the same Mini RTD Pt-100 Transmitter but in its case. Encapsulated in epoxy, hermetically sealed against harsh industrial environment. This will work well even near fumes of Ammonia with no corrosion. But not near vapors which can be ignited by sparking as terminals are still open. The side view shows zero and full scale ten turn bourns trimpots heads, for calibration. After cal it can be sealed with RTV compound.

Tuesday, June 09, 2015

PLC based PID Controller

Below is a Electrical Control Panel, It has a Strip Chart Recorder which is electro-mechanical, It has a PLC Inside. A handheld PLC Programming unit. The computer is showing the Ladder Logic Program. PLC is based on a embedded uC. The DIN Controllers are Analog + Digital circuits. So you see it is a Electrical Control Panel with Electronics and the PLC Ladder Logic means, Software too.

Process Control Application Notes

This is a PID Controller based Control Panel using a PLC from GE Fanuc Automation. The Computer is a 386 40MHz with 40MB HDD.

PID Controller PLC

Electrical Control Panel Wiring


Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Design and Technology Site

This website contains numerous information sheets and exercises to enhance the study, understanding and teaching of DESIGN and TECHNOLOGY. - by V. Ryan

Design and Technology Site

The information sheets cover a wide range and include, the design process, gear systems, electronics, cams, printed circuit boards, PIC microcontrollers / computer control.

Topics - RoboLab, PCB Work, Computer Control, PIC Control, Product Design, Electronics, Design Process

Design and Technology Site

Potentiometers are used in circuits, when it is necessary to alter the resistance. Dark/light and temperature sensors usually have these components, as the potentiometer / variable resistor allows the circuit to be made more or less sensitive (they can be turned up or down - reducing or increasing resistance).

Monday, May 11, 2015

More on Piezoelectric Crystal Oscillator

Crystal Oscillators are the Time Base on a wristwatch or a home clock, analog or digital, Mechanical clocks have become rare due to the Maintenance and Accuracy. Some crystals can change dimensions on a electric force, some generate electricity on Mechanical Strain.

Crystal Oscillator - Parallel Resonant

Ceramic Resonators - "The ceramic components are made of high stability piezoelectric ceramics that functions as a mechanical resonator. The frequency is primary adjusted by the size and thickness of the ceramic element."

More on Piezoelectric Crystal Oscillator

In the mechanical gramophone a metal needle and a horn would amplify the sound. When Record players came, the use of magnetic pickups made the needle size a bit smaller but the signal was weak. The crystal type pickups made the needle thinner and the electricity generated by crystal moving on the grooves was large, in mV. A preamp was rarely required. But Equalization preprocessing of audio was needed, to match the ear response. The electric gramophone made LP or Long Playing Record Players possible. It is analogous to DVD having more capacity than CDROM.

Crystal Oscillator - Wikipedia

"When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as piezoelectricity."

Crystals and Their Applications

Wednesday, May 06, 2015

Socratic Electronics and Electric Circuits

Lessons In Electric Circuits

Socratic Instrumentation Project.  - If you are interested in industrial instrumentation, Checkout the book "Lessons in Industrial Instrumentation" at the Socratic Instrumentation project. The project provides work sheets too. You will also find links to public-domain textbooks on subjects related to industrial instrumentation.

"We live in a world where the accumulation of knowledge is exponential over time, and where the ability to continuously learn and make sound judgments is essential to survival. Formal education ought to play an important role in preparing individuals to succeed in this environment, but many traditional modes of education actually discourage development of independent thinking skills necessary for success."

Socratic Electronics

" The most important thing any educator can impart to a student, in any context, is the ability to teach themselves."  - Tony R. Kuphaldt

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Oscilloscopes in Test Measurement

The usefulness of an oscilloscope is not limited to the world of electronics. With the proper transducer, an oscilloscope can measure all kinds of phenomena.

Type 465 Tektronix oscilloscope

Type 465 Tektronix oscilloscope. This was a popular analog oscilloscope, portable, and is a representative example. - XYZs of Oscilloscopes - Tektronix

Introduction to Oscilloscope - The single most important diagnostic tool used by experimental physicists is the oscilloscope. Certainly all scientists and engineers should be familiar with this common instrument, shown in the Fig. 1. An oscilloscope (scope for short) can be used to "see" an electrical signal by displaying a replica of a voltage signal as a function of time.

Introduction to Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope - Wikipedia

Oscilloscopes are used to observe the change of an electrical signal over time, such that voltage and time describe a shape which is continuously graphed against a calibrated scale. The observed waveform can be analyzed for such properties as amplitude, frequency, rise time, time interval, distortion and others.

Tektronix Reference Materials

There are many older Tektronix instruments that, with a little care and restoration, are just as useful as the latest and greatest. Knowing what you have or need, and how to use it, are often more important than having the "very latest".

Oscilloscope at Willamson Labs

As important as knowing what is going on inside, is knowing how to make effective measurements using an integral part of the oscilloscope: the Scope Probes. The probe and how it is used, can make or break the usefulness of the oscilloscope.

Basic Function of an Oscilloscope

Interactive Demo - The oscilloscope is an electronic instrument widely used in making electrical measurements. The main component of the oscilloscope is the cathode ray tube (CRT). The CRT is a vacuum tube in which electrons are accelerated and deflected under the influence of electric field.

Monday, April 13, 2015

555 The most Incredible Chip

Create an innovative 555 design today, the 555 should be the heart of the circuit.

555 timer Design
Here are some pages having 555 design ideas that will help you learn quickly. Then create your own design, be original. Learn and Do-it-Yourself or DIY. Better still CIY - Create it Yourself. Be Creative.

delabs 555 Resources
More Here

Delayed Light Turn off 555

Circuits from an early Signetics NE555 Datasheet.

Sunday, April 05, 2015

Texas Instruments - TI Semiconductors

Texas Instruments, better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology.

Texas Instruments - TI Semiconductors

Chip IC Products include Solutions in Analog, DSP- Digital Signal Processing, Power Management, A/D Converter, Microcontroller based Systems, Mixed Signal Designs, Multiplexers and Thermal Management Solutions.

Here is a copy of a very old Application Book of TI, that helped me in learning more in Mixed design.

Texas Instruments - TI Semiconductors

Monday, March 16, 2015

The Blobz Guide to Electric Circuits

Enter the Blobz Guide to Electric Circuits. - developed by Andy Thelwell at Staffordshire University. This is an excellent starter for youngsters to learn electricity.

The Blobz Guide to Electric Circuits

The Blobz Guide to Electric Circuits

This was a Tutor that started with the early-web means after Y2K times. This also used flash very creatively to make a web multimedia interactive tutor.

You can learn about battery, wire, switch and flow of electronics and the basic concepts that make electrical and electronic circuits. This is both useful for children and older people unfamiliar with electrons and their antics.

Sunday, March 15, 2015

National Instruments - Test and Measurement

For the past 30 years, National Instruments has been a technology pioneer and leader in virtual instrumentation - a revolutionary concept that has changed the way engineers and scientists in industry, government, and academia approach measurement and automation.


LabVIEW, Data Acquisition, Modular Instruments, PXI, Programmable Automation Controllers.
Here is a page from an old NI Catalog. RS-232 Tutorial of NI. drag-drop image to read.

National Instruments - Test and Measurement

One which is useful for beginners is the LabVIEW Student Edition - LabVIEW easily connects to any device be it hardware or outside applications like Microsoft Excel. You can depend on this seamless development experience as you write your program.

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Charles Proteus Steinmetz

He was an American Mathematician and Electrical Engineer. He fostered the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineers.

Charles Proteus Steinmetz
 (April 9, 1865 - October 26, 1923)

Charles Proteus Steinmetz

He made ground-breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enabled engineers to better design electric motors for use in industry.

Charles Proteus Steinmetz electrical engineer

Hysteresis - Charles Proteus Steinmetz

"Eickemeyer wanted to expand into electrical motors and generators, a brand new field in 1889."

AC hysteresis theory

Shortly after arriving in the U.S., Steinmetz went to work for Rudolf Eickemeyer in Yonkers, New York, and published in the field of magnetic hysteresis, which gave him world-wide professional recognition.

Eickemeyer's firm developed transformers for use in the transmission of electrical power among many other mechanical and electrical devices. In 1893 Eickemeyer's company, along with all of its patents and designs, was bought by the newly formed General Electric Company, where he quickly became known as the engineering wizard in GE's engineering community.

My Notes-

I read about  Steinmetz long ago in a Reader Digest that belonged to my grandfather. It was dated like 1950-60. These issues have become brown and have  been ruled by silverfishes.

I cannot find that article but i remember it roughly ......

People from/related to GE had problems with thier electrical equipment heating up a lot. Then they heard of this person of Germany who had mentioned about some remedy to such issues.

They visited him in his loft or some upstairs room where the solution to this problem was discussed and the rest is remarkable history for Electrical Engineering. 

The part of the story i remember most was that in one of his wardrobe drawers, a Mama Mouse had made it her home and was also having her kids here. Not only did the compassionate Steinmetz allowed it to keep her quarters, he even attended to the new family with some food and necessities.

Heard of very few angels like this.

delabs Technologies
2013 Updated

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

Basic Digital Electronics Tutors

These Digital Tutors are interactive and started with very basic JavaScript and CSS. You can operate the controls and see the Truth Table and Results in LED Displays. Controls include DIP Switches and Push Buttons.

Tutorials on Digital Electronics

Digital Electronics Interactive Tutors

In Electronics Theory Section


Here is a Snapshot of a Live iGoogle Page showing a Digital Preset counter Gadget in Canvas view.
Other Gadgets are Logic Gates Tutor and Digital Timer

Monday, February 09, 2015

Muntzing a Circuit Design

A History of TV is not Complete till you Learn about the Adventures of Earl Muntz. How he cut cost to Promote his TV Sets by Incremental Pruning of Parts from a Working unit.

Adventures of Earl Muntz and his TV

What is important to learn from it though, is that we should not overdesign or underdesign. We need to design a cost effective product within customer budget. More Bells and Whistles in yet another Model. A Model to cater to every Purse. And a BareBones model for those who just can barely afford it.

History of Muntzing

Muntz Story

"He took a trip to New York City, checked into the Warwick Hotel and ordered three television sets delivered to his room: an RCA, a Philco and a Dumont. He turned all three televisions to the same channel and began pulling tubes from each one by one. When he pulled one tube too many from a set and the picture went black, he would make a note. Then, he put all the tubes back, changed the channel to another of the four television stations operating in New York City and repeated the test."

Wednesday, February 04, 2015

Types of Prototype Boards for Breadboard Testing

Tag Board or Terminal Strips were the first General Purpose Boards for Electronic Prototyping. This was also the way some modules in Valve Radios and Early Televisions were manufactured. The Turret Board that still remains in use can be seen as an example of  Point to Point Wiring.

Turret Board

These are useful to place Heating Parts, High Voltage or High Energy Circuits and Sometimes RF Assemblies too.

BreadBoard - Is also a word to indicate the Prototyping Work or Act.

This is a reusable gadget like a connector, works like an IC base, only that the connectors in this are very long lasting. 

You can just plug in the components and connect using thick pre-tinned single strand wire. Big pins can ruin the sockets and powercircuits. Levels > 200mA or > 24V could be avoided on these boards.

Types of Prototype Boards for Breadboard Testing

General Purpose PCB - Perfboard, Stripboard, Veroboard.

This is a PCB  known as  "General Purpose Prototyping Board".  They have to be soldered and some tracks cut with tool-knife. Power circuits also can be built with wire reinforcements and RF circuits too if you plan the layout first on paper. The one with the "Breadboard" layout with a Power bus is most popular. Some for IC circuits are also available,

Wire Wrapping

This is way Custom Equipment, Systems and Advanced Boards are made. When a customer orders a system, just one of a kind. This can be used to prototype and even manufacture a couple of systems.

Extended Eurocard Intergrated Circuit development card

When you are creating a 19" Eurocard Rackmount Solution, say a big Data Acquisition System or a ATE an Automatic Test Equipment. You could use these type of cards.

Eurocard and Plugin Board from Vero

Integrated Circuit Development Plug In Board

Plug-in Veroboard - This board combines the unique Veroboard pattern with the 37 way 2,54mm pitch direct edge connector. Intended primarily for hard wiring of discrete components it is equally useful where a number of common bus or signal lines are required.

Saturday, January 17, 2015

Types of Capacitors

Capacitors ares like reservoirs of charge. In the Water Analogy they are like your Overhead Tank or Sump. It can be like a Lake or Pond, when water is the charge.

Ceramic capacitors are the most economic in the lower values like pf and nf, Electrolytic Capacitors which have polarities that should strictly be observed, are used above 1uf. Plastic caps have temperature and environment stability and are more in use in Instrumentation and Industrial Electronics in place of ceramic, mica or paper caps. Mica and Paper caps have become rare today.

Components Parts Kits and Materials

Ultracaps and supercaps are the new innovation for the years 2000+. They have values in farads but quite small in size. Electrolytic caps become too big in size beyond 10,000 uF, hence supercaps have a future.Tantalum electrolytic caps are used in Instrumentation and computers, a bit expensive but much smaller.

Types of Capacitors

Electronic Materials - Electronic Components and EE Materials.

Important Point to note before circuit design
  • Voltage Rating is the most important to ensure long operational life and reliability, overrate 1.5 times. If max voltage capacitor will face is 15V then use 25V rating capacitor.
  • SMPS-ESR means Equivalent series Resistance at high SMPS frequency, the capacitor adds a inductance by the way it is constructed. So use Caps in Parallel for Lower ESR.
  • For Oscillators and A-D Converters choose Plastic Multilayer Caps as they leak less and have low temperature sensitivity.
  • Ceramic and Elcap are for Filtering and decoupling and are low priced too.
  • Electrolytic Caps back2back in series can make non-polar caps for Low current AC like AF, as used in a cross-over network of loud speaker of stereo system.
  • NPO "negative-positive-zero" caps and most plastic caps can be used for Oscillators as the negative and positive temperature coefficients are very less.
  • Most Plastic Caps are wound, so have inductance, which makes them unsuitable for filtering RF.
  • X and Y caps are special EMI-RFI filter caps, suppress interference and are safe at high voltage.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Educypedia the educational encyclopedia.

Educypedia is an information resource about scientific and educational material: electronics, science, engineering, encyclopedia and information technology.


De Beer Gino an Engineer of Belgium had made a Resource called Educypedia ..."A free online encyclopedia, stands for educational encyclopedia. The goal is providing people a gateway the best electronic sources (technical and scientific matter) on the internet." - EE Library at EEMetric

Early 2000 Educypedia

This Resource was most popular in the late Nineties to early 2000 times. Then he hosted it in a domain educypedia.be. Around 2009 the links to the valuable pages are broken.

Educypedia Electronics Mirror - Thanks to karadimov.info

This is the best mirror of educypedia, but many outgoing links are broken as many websites have gone ! See most at "The WayBack Machine" Even the Lost ones.

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Sunday, January 04, 2015

Voltage Regulators LM7812 and LM317

The LM78XX series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in the TO-220 package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down, and safe operating area protection.

Fairchild LM7812
Fairchild P/N LM7812

LM7812 


LM317

Adjustable power supply
"The LM117 series of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators is capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range.
    3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator

    LM317 Variable Power Supply

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