Saturday, January 17, 2015

Types of Capacitors

Capacitors ares like reservoirs of charge. In the Water Analogy they are like your Overhead Tank or Sump. It can be like a Lake or Pond, when water is the charge.

Ceramic capacitors are the most economic in the lower values like pf and nf, Electrolytic Capacitors which have polarities that should strictly be observed, are used above 1uf. Plastic caps have temperature and environment stability and are more in use in Instrumentation and Industrial Electronics in place of ceramic, mica or paper caps. Mica and Paper caps have become rare today.

Components Parts Kits and Materials

Ultracaps and supercaps are the new innovation for the years 2000+. They have values in farads but quite small in size. Electrolytic caps become too big in size beyond 10,000 uF, hence supercaps have a future.Tantalum electrolytic caps are used in Instrumentation and computers, a bit expensive but much smaller.

Types of Capacitors

Electronic Materials - Electronic Components and EE Materials.

Important Point to note before circuit design
  • Voltage Rating is the most important to ensure long operational life and reliability, overrate 1.5 times. If max voltage capacitor will face is 15V then use 25V rating capacitor.
  • SMPS-ESR means Equivalent series Resistance at high SMPS frequency, the capacitor adds a inductance by the way it is constructed. So use Caps in Parallel for Lower ESR.
  • For Oscillators and A-D Converters choose Plastic Multilayer Caps as they leak less and have low temperature sensitivity.
  • Ceramic and Elcap are for Filtering and decoupling and are low priced too.
  • Electrolytic Caps back2back in series can make non-polar caps for Low current AC like AF, as used in a cross-over network of loud speaker of stereo system.
  • NPO "negative-positive-zero" caps and most plastic caps can be used for Oscillators as the negative and positive temperature coefficients are very less.
  • Most Plastic Caps are wound, so have inductance, which makes them unsuitable for filtering RF.
  • X and Y caps are special EMI-RFI filter caps, suppress interference and are safe at high voltage.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Educypedia the educational encyclopedia.

Educypedia is an information resource about scientific and educational material: electronics, science, engineering, encyclopedia and information technology.


De Beer Gino an Engineer of Belgium had made a Resource called Educypedia ..."A free online encyclopedia, stands for educational encyclopedia. The goal is providing people a gateway the best electronic sources (technical and scientific matter) on the internet." - EE Library at EEMetric

Early 2000 Educypedia

This Resource was most popular in the late Nineties to early 2000 times. Then he hosted it in a domain educypedia.be. Around 2009 the links to the valuable pages are broken.

Educypedia Electronics Mirror - Thanks to karadimov.info

This is the best mirror of educypedia, but many outgoing links are broken as many websites have gone ! See most at "The WayBack Machine" Even the Lost ones.

Educypedia - Electronics
- Thanks to Archive.org

Sunday, January 04, 2015

Voltage Regulators LM7812 and LM317

The LM78XX series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in the TO-220 package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down, and safe operating area protection.

Fairchild LM7812
Fairchild P/N LM7812

LM7812 


LM317

Adjustable power supply
"The LM117 series of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators is capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range.
    3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator

    LM317 Variable Power Supply

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