Saturday, November 12, 2016

Active Filter Design with OpAmps

This is yet another Application Note of Exar found in- "Applications Data Book" June 1981. The Seven Scanned Pages as attachments can be viewed and studied at …

The availability of low cost dual or quad operational amplifier IC's have made the operational amplifier based active filter techniques cost effective over conventional passive filters. The recent availability of programmable quad operational amplifiers such as the XR-4202 or the XR-346 have provided the active filter designer with the flexibility to externally program gain-bandwidth product, supply current, input bias current, input offset current, input noise and the slew rate.

Application Note - AN-03 - Active Filter Design with IC Op-Amps

Active Filter Design with OpAmps

This application note is intended to familiarize the filter designer with the fundamentals of active filter design, using monolithic IC op amps. It presents a table of transfer functions and network equations for high-pass, low-pass, band-pass and band-reject filters. Several design examples are given to illustrate the respective merits and limitations of various filter configurations. Particular emphasis is given to applications of programmable quad operational amplifiers, such as the XR-4202, as an active filter element in FSK Modems.

Thursday, November 10, 2016

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor and Simulator

Draw and print beautiful schematics for lab reports. In-browser simulations make it easy to quickly learn electronics concepts. No need to Install, it is a Online Web Application !

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor & Simulator

Test and Simulate circuit ideas before breadboarding. SPICE-like models with a mixed-mode simulation engine help you apply one tool to a wide range of design tasks, from digital to analog, DC to VHF and beyond.

CircuitLab - Online Schematic Editor and Simulator

BJT Cascoded Active-load Differential Amplifier with CMFB

Build non-op-amp Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) - This kind of high-gain differential input stage might be useful as part of an op-amp, but it's a bit silly to include an op-amp within a stage another op-amp......

Some Examples
  • 555 Timer as Oscillator / PWM Generator
  • 7805 & Wall-wart Experiencing Voltage Drop-out
  • Digital 4-bit counter and DAC
  • Diode full-wave (bridge) rectifier
  • Laplace transform step response and Bode plot
  • LED with resistor biasing
  • MOSFET switching inductive load
  • Op-Amp inverting / non-inverting amplifier
  • RLC resonance
  • Zener diode voltage reference

Friday, November 04, 2016

Electromagnetic Spectrum - Wavelengths

"Some insects, like bees, can see light of shorter wavelengths than humans can see."

This is something to Buzz about. This chart is excellent, a Pictogram. A small image with a Graphical, Complete and Concise expression of a Scientific Truth.

Electromagnetic Spectrum - Berkeley Lab

Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes-- visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and radio waves that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.....

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Measuring the electromagnetic spectrum

Faraday cages are structures - as small as a shoebox or as big as a building - that protect what's inside from surrounding electromagnetic radiation (EM).

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Faraday Cage

Here is a Electromagnetic Spectrum Chart from Sura.org - Southeastern Universities Research Association.

Friday, October 14, 2016

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Mains Power means the 230 V AC 50 Hz or 110 V AC 60 Hz in some countries, The lower power line like 5A is used for small lamps and fans. The higher power line 15A is used to drive the High Power Electrical Appliances like Heaters and Motors. This is a single phase supply.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Single phase Supply in layman language means a Live, a Neutral and an optional earth. The earthing is a must in every building along with lightning protection. The Neutral is a close to earth potential, The live can give a shock to a man who is in contact with earth at some part of the human body. So great care has to be taken. This live wire or point can be easily checked by a quality standards approved Neon Tester.

Voltmeter and Ammeter

Three phase supply - there are three Live wires, used in factorys and apartments to power bigger loads and Motors. A 3 phase AC motor is very efficient and economical and most machines like Drills and Lathes are powered by AC Motors. 3 phase supply becomes essential for industry.

The voltage is transmitted and supplied to houses at a high level in comparison to low level of batteries. This High Voltage is not safe but Inevitable, as transmitting at lower voltage means greater current carrying requirements of wires and connectors. That leads to more copper or aluminum usage, more wastage of power due to I2R.

Earthing has to be good, use a Earth Leakage Trip Device. If earth wire gets snapped outside and some appliance is leaking, the metal clad appliances may give shock. Even if no appliance is leaking, the current thru y-capacitors of EMI Filters in Electronic Gadgets like computers are enough to make your Neon tester glow.

The Circuits related to Mains Power
delabs

Thursday, October 13, 2016

DSP and VLSI Tutorials and Courses

Some VLSI System Design Topics for study at  EECS Course WEB Sites. Many other sites below.

VLSI Home Page of Dr. Jim Plusquellic  - Many CMOS VLSI Design Information for Students.  

Unified view of technological, architectural and design-related aspects of VLSI systems... VLSI design flow

Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device.


Current information on Embedded Systems for uC and ASIC Designers. Inside DSP - signal processing monthly. BDTI's Pocket Guide - guide to processing engines for embedded applications covers DSP processors, CPUs, microcontrollers, and FPGAs. DSP Dictionary too.

Berkeley Design Technology, Inc. -- Free Information


DSP Basics course online course which is free. Developed in 1998 it is light-weight but a valuable start for people new to DSP or in need of a refresher

Johns Hopkins University Signals Systems Control

The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing By Steven W. Smith, Ph.D. - Free DSP Book

Tutorials in Communications Engineering

"This website offers tutorials I have written on various topics in analog and digital communications that will help you cut through this complexity. I keep adding to this collection, albeit very slowly."

Charan Langton

The Java- Digital Signal Processing (J-DSP) editor is an Internet based signal processing laboratory that provides hands-on learning experiences in distributed learning environments

This site provides the current version of the book Introduction to Statistical Signal Processing by R.M. Gray and L.D. Davisson

DSPRelated.com since 1999, popular independent internet resource for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) engineers.

Prosig Noise & Vibration Measurement Blog

This tutorial with Java Applets is good to start with for DSP learning. DSP is a part of Embedded Processing. Also where Real Time Analog Meets Digital. Not that you will need DSP for everything. Simple equations can be implemented without DSP, but is an entry into the DSP world.

When complex waveforms in Audio / Video needs to be synthesized / manipulated. RF Communication related calculations too. More power and focus on math and speed makes dedicated DSP devices / software / specialization inevitable.

Digital Signal Processing Tutorial

Tuesday, October 04, 2016

Learn Electrical Engineering or EE Tutorials

From Basic Physics to  Electricity and Magnetism. Basic Electrical Circuits to Electronics. Some good Tutorials in the Web from around the World.

High School Electricity Tutors in French
These are excellent Java Applets to Teach Physics and Electricity for Young Students. Translate it easily using the Google Toolbar. Some good ones are Wheatstone Bridge, RLC circuit under sinusoidal, Moving coil galvanometer and Electrodynamic wattmeter.
Physics and Simulation

EE Tutorials Online Sydney University
Tutorial covers Introduction to PC, Matlab Tutorial, Science & Technology. Introduction to the Oscilloscope and other good tutors are here.
School of Electrical and Information Engineering at Sydney University

Learn Electrical Engineering or EE Tutorials

Basic Electrical Concepts Tutor
Tutorial from the pages of E. J. Mastascusa Professor of Electrical Engineering at Bucknell University. Here Electrical Elements, Digital Signals and Logic, Time/Frequency and Measurements are covered.
Electrical Engineering Lessons Start Page

DC/AC Circuits Reference
These pages are excellent Learning pages for the EE/Science student. Pages on Mathematics too at Physics/Math References by Lewis A. Riley - Ursinus College.
Lew Riley : Physics/Math References

Circuit Basics Quick Reference
Circuit Elements, Circuit Analysis Methods, System Behavior and Sample Problems. This "Things you should know" page is also like a Quick Reference Card for electronics study. Learning itself is a wealth, and only studying with enthusiasm, assimilates knowledge. These pages from American Institutions are a beacon for students and teachers in many other countries. Erik Cheever Engineering Department Swarthmore College. What You Should Know

EE Demos on Circuit Behavior
These are interactive demonstrations of basic circuit concepts. Learning is easy with Edutainment. It also leaves a lasting memory of fundamental theory rules & laws. Good designs are possible only when the Book Knowledge and Practical Tinkering progress synchronously. So learn and build, over and over again, till they anneal into Productive Skills.

This is one-stop shopping for nearly anything you might want to know about electricity and magnetism. From André-Marie Ampère to Wilhelm Weber, from 600 BC to the 21st century, from one end of the World Wide Web to the other: Mag Lab U Learning about Electricity and Magnetism

Thursday, August 11, 2016

EDA and Product Design Ideas

Product Design Optimization - Some Ideas of mine that are decades old , related to EDA and Product Design.

Make Practical (it works), Affordable, Usable (ergonomics), Safe, Reliable (robust), Durable and Consistent, Maintainable (means servicing) Products.

EDA CAD Circuit Design Software Tools

EDA and Product Design Ideas

Electronics Product Design Development 

Dust and Contamination in Connectors

Once i opened a RF Millivolt Meter of Marconi Instruments. It did not have a spec of dust inside, not even one micron size of dust particle.

Connectors exposed to Environment should not only be Corrosion resistant but also Dust, Grime & Insect Proof! Dummy Covers on exposed units.

Air Vents, Fans & Unused Slots in Modular Instruments. Missing Fasteners in cabinets, gaps in panel components collect Dust & Insects inside

Dust + Moisture + Smoke + Pollutants = Conductive Grime Deposits on PCB, Parts & in-between the IC pins. Can Simulation include this aspect.

Virtual Environmental Testing a part of simulation and EDA, just like Mechanical Modelling and Studying Thermal Gradients on PCB.

Friday, August 05, 2016

EE Books of Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind book on Analog CMOS design is a good reference for students and covers Power Electronic concepts like Switching Regulators and Low Drop-Out Regulators.

The Delta-Sigma Converter A/D and Zero-Crossing Detectors on Mixed Design. Communications circuits like Timers and Oscillators . Phase-Locked Loops and Filters too.

Designing Analog Chips by Hans Camenzind

EE Books of Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind was born and raised in Switzerland and moved to the U.S. after college. He received an MSEE from Northeastern University and an MBA from the University of Santa Clara. After several years doing research in the Boston area, he moved to the West Coast to join Signetics (now Philips) and later started his own company, Interdesign. After heading it for seven years he sold Interdesign to Plessey.

Much Ado About Almost Nothing

This book describes the history of the electron, the "almost nothing", from the days it was unknown until our present time. Luckily the author writes in a language that any layman can easily understand, without boring the expert either. Thanks to clear explanations and many illustrations, the functioning of magnets, cathode-ray-tubes or transistors becomes less of a mystery.

Thursday, August 04, 2016

Labcenter Electronics - Proteus Design Suite

The Proteus Design Suite is wholly unique in offering the ability to co-simulate both high and low-level micro-controller code in the context of a mixed-mode SPICE circuit simulation. With this Virtual System Modelling facility, you can transform your product design cycle, reaping huge rewards in terms of reduced time to market and lower costs of development.

Labcenter Electronics - Proteus Design Suite

Co-simulation of microprocessor software within a mixed mode SPICE simulator.
  • Available for PIC, 8051, AVR, HC11, ARM7/LPC2000 and Basic Stamp processors
  • See your code interact with simulated hardware in real-time.
  • Interactive peripheral models for displays, keypads, etc.
  • Over 8000 analogue and digital device models.
  • Extensive single step and debugging facilities including system wide diagnostics.
  • Works with popular compilers and assemblers.

Labcenter Electronics - Proteus Design Suite

Proteus Virtual System Modelling (VSM) combines mixed mode SPICE circuit simulation, animated components and microprocessor models to facilitate co-simulation of complete microcontroller based designs. For the first time ever, it is possible to develop and test such designs before a physical prototype is constructed.

Tuesday, July 05, 2016

hps SystemTechnik - didactic concepts

Here are some Training Boards with Teaching Software for electrical engineering and electronics. They also cover Mechatronic systems, Automation and Embedded Electronics.

hps SystemTechnik - didactic concepts

These are useful for vocational training, academic education and Introduction for Beginners. The PC is required for this Training Material and Boards.

Typ 3851 PIC Controller Board

Universal training system for microcontroller technology, Usually with varying PIC Controllers (16F84A, 16F876A,…), Programming in Assembler, only 35 commands necessaryCommunication with an PC over RS 232 interface, optional over USB interface

 hps SystemTechnik - didactic concepts

delabs Notes

These are based on Practical Learning or "Didactic concepts" which means - Experiential learning, that expands to things like Factory or Field Visits, Build with Kits and Boards, Hands on Workshop sessions, Environment of the Science or Technology recreated or simulated in Interactive 3D. Objects, samples and Material that the learner can apply his senses on and perceive. Real Life Project or Problem he can tackle by applying his skills.

The best is of course, Apprentice Learning which has been there for centuries. In the ancient days if the father was a Blacksmith, the son would inherit his skills and job. This was because of unconscious Didactic Training the father gave to the son.

Monday, July 04, 2016

Relays and Contactors

Contactors are used to switch Mains voltage. even three phase power to Motors, Heaters and other Actuating Elements of Industrial, Home or Energy Automation. The Types below. They carry high currents and hence are mounted on Panels and Sealed Enclosures.

What is a Relay - Jim Asks

Top three images -

Smart Contactors. Timer, Thermostat. Over Current or Voltage. Trip or Limit. Three Phase Trip. High Power. Solenoid hammer.

Power Contactors. High Power. Nut-Bolt Mounting. Solenoid hammer. Special Contacts. Special Plastics. Heaters and Motors.

Din Rail Contactors. High Power. Easy Replace Rail Mount. Solenoid hammer. Heaters and Motors. Modular, Stackable. SCADA, Control Panels.

Relays and Contactors - 1

Bottom Three images - Relays are much smaller, they are power switching relays and signal switching relays. They are mounted on PCBs or on cabinets/enclosures.

Then we have power relays, like the three above. They may be mounted on PCBs or Inside the Cabinets. They switch currents upto 5 Amps and voltages upto 230V. These are used in Home Automation and in Instruments. The Signal from these drive Contactors in Large Power Systems.

The PCB Versions should not be used for high currents, use for signalling contacters or driving Lamps and Hooters in Annunciation and Alarm systems.

Medium Power. Solder Terminations. Panel Mount. Solenoid hammer. Low Cost. Time Tested Design. Commercial.

Low Power DPDT. PCB Mount. Solenoid hammer. Visual Isolation. Switches Two Loads. Industrial.

Low Power. Small Footprint. Solenoid hammer. Communications. Appliance Control. Low Cost.


In image below - see top three images

Medium Power. Panel or Rail Base Mount. Solenoid hammer. Visual Isolation. Easy Replace, Plugin. Industrial.

Medium Power. PCB Mount. Solenoid hammer. Visual Isolation. Switches Two Circuits. Industrial.

Low Power SPDT. PCB Mount. Solenoid hammer. Visual Isolation. Controls Contactor. Industrial.

Relays and Contactors - 2

Bottom three images are Analog or Digital Signal Relays, means very low current, Low voltage. It is used in Instrumentation, Communications and circuit multiplexing.

Micro Power. Telecommunications. Analog Signal Switch. Low Capacitance. Low Inductance. Reed Relay.

Micro Power. Analog Signal Switch. Small Footprint. Reed Relay. Instrumentation. Communications.

Micro Power. Analog Signal Switch. Small Footprint. Reed Relay. Communications. Low Ripple Pickup.

Choosing a relay-  A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts.

Relay Timing -   The text covers electronic circuit to sequence and speed separate relays (like dual vacuum relays) and describes how to sequence mechanically ganged contacts like those in open frame relays.

Relay - Wikipedia  - A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts,

    Saturday, July 02, 2016

    Prototyping to prove a Design Concept

    Before simulation in EDA tools. First stage of concept proof or design tweaks were made on BreadBoard, Stripboard or General Purpose PCB.

    Even now it is used after simulation or directly. Many RF and Power electronics designs may have to be verified and modified on Pilot Production. Digital Designs and Software/Firmware checks don't need hardware prototypes, but need a proven framework to test it on.

    Prototyping to prove a Design Concept

    Hobby and Education learning must use breadboards alongside simulation, even though educational eda tools are used. Breadboard connects us with the reality, the way it is. Then you will even simulate better. Robotics and Developing Mechatronics Solutions may need prototyping and modifications many times over.

    Soldering and Shiny joints are everything in electronics. One dry solder, a cut track, a solder bridge or splatter near the IC can make a card malfunction.

    Thin copper tracks taking high currents, HV and LV circuit isolation, Ground loops, RF Antenna Effect, Ground Plane and Guard rings are just some things to know on Component to Component Connections, that make a huge difference.

    In Design Notes of Soldermans Basic Electronics you will find my learning notes in electronics. How this learning happened ?

    I had setup my Hobby Science/Electronics Lab when i was in School, In college i was helping others learn practical electronics. I worked in Product Design and Engineering Departments when i was Employed. During this time my Electronics Lab was a Free Training Center, sponsored by my own pay. Then i started my manufacturing firm.

    More reading  - Luciani.org Breadboard Hints - John Luciani explains how to prototype a circuit to try out a concept

    delabs

    Wednesday, June 08, 2016

    Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

    Here are two important educational reference books from Texas Instruments in PDF format.

    "While in the process of reviewing Texas Instruments applications notes, including those from the recently acquired Burr-Brown - I uncovered a couple of treasures, this handbook on active RC networks and one on op amp applications. These old publications, from 1966 and 1963, respectively, are some of the finest works on op amp theory that I have ever seen. Nevertheless, they contain some material that is hopelessly outdated. This includes everything from the state of the art of amplifier technology, to the parts referenced in the document - even to the symbol used for the op amp itself:"

    Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

    Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications - PDF
    by Bruce Carter and Thomas R. Brown - sboa092a.pdf - 2.1 Mb

    The operational amplifier is an extremely efficient and versatile device. Its applications span the broad electronic industry filling requirements for signal conditioning, special transfer functions, analog instrumentation, analog computation, and special systems design. The analog assets of simplicity and precision characterize circuits utilizing operational amplifiers.

    Handbook of Operational Amplifier Active RC Networks - PDF
    by Bruce Carter and L.P. Huelsman - sboa093a.pdf - 3.6 Mb

    This is a handbook on active RC networks. The first question about this subject that one might ask is, "What is an active RC network?" The answer is simple. It is collection of resistors, capacitors, and an active element (or elements). Viewed in another sense; it is a circuit without inductors. Why leave out inductors? There are many reasons. First of all, the inductor is a relatively large and heavy element. This is especially true at frequencies in the audio range and below.

    Tuesday, June 07, 2016

    How To Learn Electronics

    Theory must be studied once and referred again and again as you do practicals. One is by building DIY projects and then modifying them. Also Repair of equipment, troubleshooting, testing and calibrating. Then you know how components behave and real life limitations. Now design and engineer a product and test it at customer site. do a pilot production and test with more clients. Now you will learn to think based on practical application.

    Integrated into Electronic Tables and Charts in 2016

    This invention lead to modern electronics, computers and internet look at this page, Transistor Photo.

    History of The Transistor

    History of The Transistor the "Crystal Triode"

    A picture of the first transistor ever assembled, invented in Bell Labs in 1947. It was called a point contact transistor because amplification or transistor action occurred when two pointed metal contacts were pressed onto the surface of the semiconductor material.

    Light and different frequencies Electromagnetic spectrum

    Electromagnetic spectrum

    Saturday, June 04, 2016

    Function and Waveform Generators – IC

    An Oscilloscope could be used to monitor the test points and the output of systems or modules. A function generator injects the input or simulates a input condition. It could be Sine Wave, Triangle Wave, Ramp or Square wave. Frequency, Amplitude and Duty cycle (square) are variable settings.

    For radios and amplifiers a simpler set is used it is called "Signal Injector" and "Signal Tracer". In Digital System a Pulse Generator and a Logic Probe may be used.

    delabs Notes


    The AD5932 is a waveform generator providing a programmable frequency scan. Utilizing embedded digital processing allowing enhanced frequency control the device generates synthesized analog or digital frequency-stepped waveforms.

    AD5932 - Programmable Single-Scan Waveform Generator

    This product from Analog Devices is Active. Sinusoidal/triangular/square wave outputs. Output frequency up to 25 Mhz.

    The chips below may not be in production, but available in some stores.


    XR2206 - Monolithic Function Generator

    XR2206 - Monolithic Function Generator

    The XR2206 is a monolithic function generator integrated circuit capable of producing high quality sine, square, triangle, ramp, and pulse waveforms of high-stability and accuracy. The output waveforms can be both amplitude and frequency modulated by an external voltage. Frequency of operation can be selected externally over a range of 0.01Hz to more than 1MHz.

    XR2209 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    XR2209 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    The XR2209 is a monolithic voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) integrated circuit featuring excellent frequency stability and a wide tuning range. The circuit provides simultaneous triangle and squarewave outputs over a frequency range of 0.01Hz to 1MHz. It is ideally suited for FM, FSK and sweep or tone generation, as well as for phase-locked loop applications. Waveform Generation Triangle, Sawtooth, Pulse, Squarewave.

    ICL8038 Precision Waveform Generator/Voltage Controlled Oscillator

    The ICL8038 waveform generator is a monolithic integrated circuit capable of producing high accuracy sine, square, triangular, sawtooth and pulse waveforms with a minimum of external components. The frequency (or repetition rate) can be selected externally from 0.001Hz to more than 300kHz using either resistors or capacitors, and frequency modulation and sweeping can be accomplished with an external voltage.

    delabs Notes

    This was one of my favorite chips. This is of educational value. It was a pioneer chip a mixed cmos device. Make it a point to read the Datasheet. Chip may have been invented 1980 around. This is study material for college.

    It is not available in stores. Some EE Engineer or Ham-DIY Enthusiast may have a few. Borrow and try it out for learning.

    Science Fiction - Advanced Students can try configuring it in a Programmable Mixed Chip EDA tool plugin, if someone has developed that. Try taking a draft output on a semiconductor laser nano-milling prototype printer with a built in Mems pico-doper. If that works, lets go foundry!

    Wednesday, May 11, 2016

    Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

    Comprises Op Amp Basics, Specialty Amplifiers, Using Op Amps with Data Converters, Sensor Signal Conditioning, Analog Filters, Signal Amplifiers, Hardware and Housekeeping Techniques, and Op Amp History.

    Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

    In the past several years, many advances have been made in operational amplifiers and the latest op amps have powerful new features, making them more suitable for use in many products requiring weak signal amplification, such as medical devices, communications technology, optical networks, and sensor interfacing.

    Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

    Walt Jung, analog design guru and author of the classic IC OP-Amp Cookbook (which has gone into three editions since 1974), has now written what may well be the ultimate op amp reference book.

    As Jung says, “This book is a compendium of everything that can currently be done with op amps.” This book is brimming with up-to-date application circuits, handy design tips, historical perspectives, and in-depth coverage of the latest techniques to simplify op amp circuit designs and improve their performance.

    Analog Dialogue: Analog Devices

    See Application Notes too on Amplifiers and Comparators, Current Sense Amplifiers, Differential Amplifiers, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Isolation Amplifiers.

    Monday, May 09, 2016

    Battery Charger and Rechargeable Batteries

    The main Types of Rechargeable Batteries are NiCd - Lead Acid - NiMH - Lithium ion. The Gel Lead Acid Battery is Termed Maintenance Free and may have to be treated differently for charging.

    List of battery sizes - Wikipedia

    Battery Types and their Sizes

    4.5 Volt - D - C - AA - AAA - 9 Volt - SR41/AG3 - SR44/AG13

    Battery Charger Circuits and Resources

    Solar charger for lead-acid batteries
    The charger will stop charging once a pre-set voltage (temperature compensated) has been reached, and recommence charging when the voltage has dropped off sufficiently.

    12 Volt Gel Cell Charger
    When a discharged gel cell is connected, the charger goes into a fast charge mode at a fixed rate of 400 ma. After the chip detects the voltage leveling off or when 4 1/2 hours has elapsed.

    Temperature Controlled NiCd Charger
    This circuit is for a temperature controlled constant current battery charger. It works with NICD, NIMH, and other rechargeable cells.

    Battery charger 150-1700 mAh with PIC16F876
    This is the extension of the simple battery charger to different battery capacities. The software and the controller are largely identical.

    MAX846A Cost-Saving, Multichemistry, Battery Charge Chip
    In its simplest application, the MAX846A is a stand-alone, current-limited float voltage source that charges Li-Ion cells. It can also be paired up with a low-cost microcontroller (µC) to build a universal charger capable of charging Li-Ion, NiMH, and NiCd cells.

    Rechargeable Batteries and Chargers
    There are three types of rechargeable batteries. They are Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd), which are the oldest type; Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH), which were developed around the same time that low-cost digital cameras were invented.

    Sunday, May 08, 2016

    Mechatronics a Montage of All Engineering

    I once knew a dogbert, i will not name him. Yet his words resonated as true again and again. Once when someone asked him .. "Where the highest value can be created, in an engineered product?". He reveled a profound secret, that is only discussed in whispers in the backrooms of high-tech upstarts. I will attempt to phrase it in a more concise manner.

    "When the raw materials transform into an Engineered product, the highest engineering value is both in the manufacturing process machinery and the manufactured product; If and only if, that product has mechanical, electrical, electronic and computing elements in its composition." - This was Mechatronics?

    In essence it appeared to be a CNC machine, but not exactly, CNC too and much more. Robotics is a pinnacle of this collage. Then an Intelligent Embedded Control System with sensors, switches, tachos, drives and motor a part of Mechatronics. Looks like control engineering, a sub-section of mechatronics too. Control engineering is also an independent science. Can't leave out Intelligent machinery and Complex Gadgets.

    Without chemical, component and materials engineering all the above cannot materialize. They create the inputs and technologies to the systems above.

    Finally two examples for Mechatronic Marvels - One the Lone Martian called Rover (like Wall-E) and the Ultra Busy HardDisk HDD in your own Computer.

    Mechatronics a Montage of All Engineering

    Related Sciences

    Systems Engineering - Managing and Integrating a Large Engineered System Solution. Includes Process, Project, Time, Work-flow, Co-ordination and Communication. (Means .. many Crimson Ties and a lot of Meetings ;-)

    Mems - Micro, Electronic/Electrical, Mechanical Systems. Start Reading in detail about it, but never skip Lunch. -
    1. Mechatronics Tutorial Information
    2. Mechatronics - National Instruments
    3. Mechatronics Resources
    4. Mechatronic Tips
    5. Mechatronics - Sun Equipment Corporation
    6. Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics
    7. University of Wisconsin - Madison : Mechatronics Lab

    Thursday, April 07, 2016

    High Voltage Experimenters Handbook

    "This page serves as a repository for all the bits and pieces I am collecting towards creating a modern version of the classic 1954 work by Craggs and Meek: High Voltage Laboratory Technique." - Jim

    High Voltage Experimenter's Handbook

    delabs Notes -

    First note a important point, HV is dangerous and the behavior of HV is shockingly unpredictable.

    Jim shown caged by Faraday but protected by the law of Gauss. Two medium sized Tesla coils from Brian Basura and Ross Overton were used .

    High Voltage Experimenters Handbook

    Humidity, clothing, footwear, gloves and furniture all add to the safety factors. Not to mention the special insulators and probes in plastic and ceramic that guards your body from a fatal mishap.

    First you should be very capable in using normal electrical equipment with proper prior training. Then you should have experience in Mains power and energy systems. Lastly you should be above 20 Yrs of age and Learn HV theory and Practice under a Very experienced professional in that Specialization. Jim Lux has created some valuable pages on HV.

    High Voltage Experimenter's Handbook

    There is no harm whatsoever now in studying and mastering the theory and also teaching others about the energy that is in high voltage. HV in HF is even more funny.

    More EE Stuff at Jim Lux's Web site

    All that can be invented is already invented by nature. Man can only uncover a few facts and write about it. Start with this handbook. Life is precious, take care.

    Wednesday, April 06, 2016

    Battery and Energy Management

    Using Rechargeable Battery is Environment Friendly. The 1.5V and 9V are more popular in small devices and flashlights and can create more E-Waste. So rechargeable better is it not?

    Battery and Energy Management

    There is also a 4.5V Battery or Cell. This is not so popular, it is bigger too. It packs more punch or current, i used it to flash mini Magnesium bulbs. Luckily i did not hurt my eyes in this fascination. Many cells form a battery, but in Normal Spoken English, both mean same. A cell is a single unit of cathode-anode-electrolyte. Things you ought to know

    Never Short Circuit a Battery, Fire hazard, Chemical Spill.Keep the Terminals of Battery and Gadget clean, Shiny.
    • Guard it - Dust, Grime, Rust, Liquids & small metal objects.
    • Storage - Never keep in a Metal Box or Can or Metal Safe.
    • Use Rechargeable Batteries, that is good for the Planet Earth.
    • Do not leave dead batteries in Device and forget it for days.
    • Keep away from Heat, Direct Sunlight and High Humidity.
    • Unless allowed, do not keep a charger always linked to Device.
    • Do not Stock or build Inventory of Batteries, buy on demand.
    Related Posts

    Electropaedia - Energy Sources and Energy Storage, Battery and Energy Encyclopaedia and History of Technology

    This Website has Sufficient Data on Alternative Energy (electrical). Energy Conversion and Management and most important ... Batteries. Batteries are a bit expensive, they have a long life. If care is taken, they can last long. Any Energy Harvesting needs a Battery as an Electrical Flywheel. SuperCaps too act as buffers or large reservoirs.

    Electric power generation and energy supply technologies.
    • Energy from Fossil Fuels
    • Energy from Biofuels
    • Solar Energy
    • Wind Energy
    • Nuclear Energy

    RCA connector or Phono Connector

    An RCA connector, sometimes called a phono connector or cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals. The connectors are also sometimes casually referred to as A/V jacks.

    RCA connector or Phono Connector

    The name "RCA" derives from the Radio Corporation of America, which introduced the design by the early 1940s for internal connection of the pickup to the chassis in home radio-phonograph consoles. It was originally a low-cost, simple design, intended only for mating and disconnection when servicing the console. Refinement came with later designs, although they remained compatible.

    Monday, March 21, 2016

    Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton

    "Earth leakage currents arise mainly from the EMC filters built into electronic equipment with switched mode power supplies. Standards limit the leakage current from non-fixed equipment (i.e. equipment that plugs into a standard socket outlet) to less than 3.5 mA. When a lot of electronic equipment is in use, the total leakage current in the protective conductor can become significant."

    Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton
    • Methods of Earthing
    • Earth Conductors
    • Electrical interference
    • Lightning Protection

    Earthing Practice and Power Quality

    Power Quality and Utilisation Guide

    The PQ E-library is a collection of electronic technical reference documents covering introduction, costs, harmonics, resilience, voltage disturbances, earthing, energy efficiency and renewables/distributed generation. See also - Power Quality

    Copper Development Association
    • Educational Resources
    • Computers cannot work without copper
    • Electricity in buildings
    Copper Development Association Website for information on Copper and Copper Alloys

    Copper Development Association - Resource Library

    Copper Development Association provides a range of resources in support of the correct and efficient use of copper and copper alloys for major applications.

    Thursday, March 10, 2016

    Electric double layer capacitor an eFlywheel

    The Electric double layer capacitor has the main use of a Charge Reservoir. That means a large amount of electrical charge in a small footprint.

    These charge/discharge quickly unlike the battery, There is no Electrical Energy to Chemical Energy Transformation and back, like in batteries. It may need caution in design and usage as they may carry a lot of punch.

    Electric double layer capacitor an eFlywheel

    Also known as Ultracap, Goldcap, Supercap - Electric double layer capacitor, In Farads, like batteries, Energy Reservoirs or eFlywheel.

    In Product Safety terms; The Battery has a Internal Resistance, but a Supercap does not. When used in Values like 100F and is fully charged, an Internal or External Breakdown of Insulation or Short Circuit may Occur. The Heat Generated is Enormous. Murphy's Law says such things happen..

    Supercap at Wikipedia

    Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) or SuperCapacitor

    DLCAP - Electric Double Layer Capacitor - Nippon

    They have a range of Supercapacitors upto 2500F at 2.5V and Modules like 400F and 15V. There are two types Prismatic and Cylindrical. In comparison to batteries - multi-million cycles of charge-discharge is possible.

    EverCAP - Double Layer Capacitors - Nichicon

    They have two types, High Power Density for a large current discharge. High Energy Density for a long backup time. Over a million Charge/Discharge cycles. High Efficiency. Capable of fully discharging to zero volts.

    Some things to note for a design engineer. The EDLC or Electric Double Layer Capacitors ...
    • Specified Endurance and end of life.
    • Excess Vibration can alter Specs.
    • Caution - The maximum temperature.
    • Specs are dependent on Temperature.
    • Maintain Low ripple current on Charge/Discharge.
    • It is Polarized like a Electrolytic cap.
    • Not Hot parts or Heatsink near cap.
    The Double Layer Capacitors developed by WIMA are storage capacitors with highest capacitance values in the Farad range.

    GTO Capacitors - WIMA

    They are among others suited to serve as batteries, can deliver considerably higher currents for a short time, however, and are maintenance free.

    SuperCapacitors - WIMA - These EDLC supercap has one-tenth of energy, but delivers over 10 times of power due to ultra low ESR. In Comparison with a Battery. A Lifetime of over 500,000 cycles.

    Xelled Supercapacitor - Vinatech

    Some Specs
    • Rating 2.5V / 2.7V
    • High power density (low internal resistance)
    • High electrical current, instant power back-up applied

    Tuesday, March 08, 2016

    Science a Foundation for Technology

    These books Electricity and Magnetism, Optics and The Modern Revolution in Physics are very useful for any student of electronics. To have sound science foundation, Physics and Chemistry are very important for an Electrical/Electronics Student.

    Biology and Environment learning is important for the Analytical and Medical Equipment designer. Chemistry is important for the study of materials which enable us to make new components and semiconductors. Maths cannot be ignored, it needs no special mention. Numbers are everywhere, this is the most important part of science.

    Science a Foundation for Technology

    Electricity and Magnetism Optics The Modern Revolution in Physics

    Light and Matter: open-source physics textbooks

    Electricity is Shockingly Simple

    Our Nervous System works on a Electrochemical Electricity. Brain is an Organic Chemical Computer. The Thunderbolt is just an overgrown electric spark. You know the shocking facts about the electric eel. Underwater creatures can illuminate themselves, could be like OLED.

    All your Home and Office runs on electrons. Electric cars are already a reality. This page will charge you with Electrical Facts you ought to know.

    See the electric eel too.

    Electricity Posters - Education - National Physical Laboratory

    WikiCiencia - Science and Tech Portal

    Devoted to electronics and computing. Featured articles

    Control Systems - What are the control systems, Types of automation. Solar Cells - Photovoltaic or photoelectric cells. Operation of semiconductor PN junction.

    Includes collaborative wiki on subjects like Semiconductors, Communications, Electricity.

    WikiCiencia - Science and Technology Collaborative

    Wednesday, February 17, 2016

    Wandel and Goltermann - Communication Instruments

    Just like Rohde and Schwarz which is a world leader in Communications Test Equipment, There was another from Germany called Wandel and Goltermann which made specialized RF Test Instruments.


    A short history is Wandel and Goltermann became Wavetek Wandel Goltermann (WWG) and then Acterna,

    See  Willtek Company History. Above are scans of a old catalog of Wandel and Goltermann.

    Tuesday, February 16, 2016

    Power Electronics Java Applets

    Some very useful, educative and interactive Java Applets. Tutorials around Power Electronics. Includes Diode and SCR Circuits, Controlled 1/3 Phase SCR-Thyristor Bridge Rectifier and Switch-Mode Power Supplies SMPS.

    Power electronics-interactive text

    They include Simple diode, SCR and thyristor controlled bridge rectifier circuits and most important the Switch-Mode Power Supply SMPS.

    Interactive Power Electronics Seminar (iPES) 

    Interactive Power Electronics Seminar

    The following Java applets are part of the Introductory Course on Power Electronics taught by Prof. Kolar at the ETH Zurich. The interactive and animated applets are used as aid for teaching in the classroom and are displayed using a laptop and a beamer. Furthermore, the applets do provide an opportunity for the students to experiment and learn at home more efficiently.

    Here some power electronics design info is available. Switching-Mode Power Supply Design

    At Alexandre Manuel Mota's pages you will find - Op Amps for Everyone Design Guide, History of Switched Mode Power Supplies, DC Power Supply Handbook, SWITCHMODE Power Supply Reference Manual, Linear & Switching Voltage Reference Handbook. The above PDF files seem to be good study material, before you design and build your next power supply, SMPS or AC/DC converter. - delabs

    Power Supplies and SMPS Section

    Circuits of SMPS, Power Supply, Switch Mode Power Supply are here. High Voltage Power Supply concept. DC Regulated 3 Pin Power Supplies like 7812 and 7805. Workbench Supplies.

    Electronics Concepts at HyperPhysics

    HyperPhysics is an exploration environment for concepts in physics which employs concept maps and other linking strategies to facilitate smooth navigation. For the most part, it is laid out in small segments or "cards", true to its original development in HyperCard. The entire environment is interconnected with thousands of links, reminiscent of a neural network..

    Electronics Concepts at HyperPhysics

    Students should go thru this website from cover-to-cover, It is a work of knowledge that is priceless

    Ampere Law at HyperPhysics

    Ampere's Law at HyperPhysics

    "Ampere's Law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element is equal to the permeability times the electric current enclosed in the loop."

    Monday, January 25, 2016

    Robotics Notebook of Chuck McManis

    These pages are extremely useful for an entry into the Robotics Wonderland, a little electronics ability is enough for you to start learning robotics. Robotics is the only science that covers everything almost .. Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics, Embedded, Computing, Networking, Automation and Wireless Technologies. Some advanced robots include probably every science and skill known to mankind. So make a start today. Learn Robotics! - delabs

    Robotics Notebook of Chuck McManis

    Robotics Notebook of Chuck McManis

    PIC Programming using USB, Ant Weight Speed Contro ller, LCD Diagnostic Console,

    Robotics Projects : Index
    1. Tools for Robots
    2. The ARBE-ONE Robot
    3. The High Power Speed Controller
    4. H-Bridge tutorial
    5. The Servo Gizmo
    Home Brew Robotics Club - Resurrected from the ashes of the original HomeBrew Computer Club by a group enthusiasts who were interested in the emerging field of robotics. Meets at Carnegie-Mellon West campus, Building 23 inside the NASA Research Park (NRP) complex in Mountain View, California.

    Friday, January 22, 2016

    The Hardware Book - Connectors Cables and Interface

    Hardware Book. Internet's largest free collection of connector pinouts and cable descriptions. Connectors, Pinouts for connectors, buses, Cables, How to build serial cables and many other cables. Adapters How to build adapters. tables with info. like AWG.

    HwB - The Hardware Book - Joakim Ögren

    HwB - The Hardware Book - Joakim Ögren

    Some Topics
    • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
    • Binary conversion
    • Serial Port Loopback (9 CheckIt)
    • Ethernet 10/100/1000Base-T

    Tuesday, January 19, 2016

    Potentiometers Trimpots and Presets

    Here are some images of types of Potentiometers or variable resistors. Pots or Potentiometers have a Shaft on which a knob can be fixed. These are used on Instrument panels to vary or control parameters like voltage, current, temperature etc. It is like a GUI element for Electrical and Electronic Systems. It is a basic Human Machine Interface and as old as Valve Radios. The Huge Rheostats are its ancestors but these giant pots are used in Large Electrical Circuits.

    In Electronic Circuits Rotary Pots and Sliding Pots are the defaults. These days they have been replaced by digital controls and even touch interfaces.

    In Instrumentation the Multi-Turn Wire Wound Precision, Linear Pots from Bourns or Spectrol are still used where a fine analog control is needed. Some Industrial Joysticks have also applied these.

    The Single Turn Carbon Film Rotary and Sliding Pots are used today too for Volume control and Light dimming boxes. It was used in Analog TVs and Audio Systems for decades.

    Potentiometers Trimpots and Presets

    The Wire wound Instrument pots have good Temperature Stability and higher wattage and many operations. These make it useful in Industrial Process control. Some of the applications are in Timers and Motor Control. It is also used to set analog parameters in a control system.

    Multi-Turn Trimpots and Single turn Presets are mounted on the PCB for Calibration or Adjustments of circuits. This is done using a Plastic Screwdriver called Tweaker. Some presets are dust proof. You have both the stable Metal Film and affordable Carbon Film. Vertical and Horizontal Mount.


    delabs Technologies

    Read More-

    Contents

    Basic Electronics
    Basics of Electronics
    Product Production
    Work Discipline
    Testing Points
    Learning Electronics
    Electronics Theory

    Production Notes
    Prototype Fabrication
    Electrical Circuits
    Electromechanical


    Library
    Scots Guide Electronics
    Engineering - Wikibooks
    Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
    DC Circuits UOG
    Socratic Electronics
    Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


    Product Design
    Product Development
    Constant Current Source
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Insulation Resistance
    Digital Insulation Tester
    DN Schematic PCB 04
    DN Product Design 07


    Hobby Circuits
    VU Meter Circuits
    LED brightness control
    555 Incredible Chip
    Process Control
    liquid level measurement
    Thermocouples and RTD
    Design ADC Interface uC
    Thermocouple Amplifier
    IA Instrumentation 02
    Temperature on DMM
    Optical Proximity Switch
    Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


    Test Measurement
    Instrumentation Automation
    NI Test and Measurement
    DMM Digital Multi Meter
    Oscilloscope in T&M
    IA Automation 01
    Build Instruments
    Tektronix T&M Equipment
    Educators Corner – Agilent


    Power Electronics
    UPS Background
    Transformer Connections
    DN Power Electronics 03
    DN Power Electronics 02
    Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


    Embedded
    Interfacing Microcontrollers
    Embedded Process Control
    80C31 8052 Microcontroller
    Microprocessors and uC
    Embedded Systems Design

    Components
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Relays and Contactors
    Potentiometers Trimpots
    Prototype Boards Types
    Types of Capacitors
    Types of Switches
    Resistors How they Work
    Coils Transformers SMPS
    Mains Transformers Types
    DN Components Selection 05

    Tutor Gadgets
    Count-Up Timer
    Digital Logic Gates
    Electronics Tutors

    History
    Teaching Instruments
    Charles Proteus Steinmetz
    Muntzing a Circuit Design
    Teralab Electronics projects
    Historical Instruments


    Tables, Charts, Videos
    Binary and Hex
    Resistor Color Code
    Ohms Law
    Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
    High Resistance Materials

    Analog
    School - Analog Design
    DN Analog Basics 06
    DN Op-Amps 01
    TI Semiconductors