Monday, March 21, 2016

Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton

"Earth leakage currents arise mainly from the EMC filters built into electronic equipment with switched mode power supplies. Standards limit the leakage current from non-fixed equipment (i.e. equipment that plugs into a standard socket outlet) to less than 3.5 mA. When a lot of electronic equipment is in use, the total leakage current in the protective conductor can become significant."

Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton
  • Methods of Earthing
  • Earth Conductors
  • Electrical interference
  • Lightning Protection

Earthing Practice and Power Quality

Power Quality and Utilisation Guide

The PQ E-library is a collection of electronic technical reference documents covering introduction, costs, harmonics, resilience, voltage disturbances, earthing, energy efficiency and renewables/distributed generation. See also - Power Quality

Copper Development Association
  • Educational Resources
  • Computers cannot work without copper
  • Electricity in buildings
Copper Development Association Website for information on Copper and Copper Alloys

Copper Development Association - Resource Library

Copper Development Association provides a range of resources in support of the correct and efficient use of copper and copper alloys for major applications.

Thursday, March 10, 2016

Electric double layer capacitor an eFlywheel

The Electric double layer capacitor has the main use of a Charge Reservoir. That means a large amount of electrical charge in a small footprint.

These charge/discharge quickly unlike the battery, There is no Electrical Energy to Chemical Energy Transformation and back, like in batteries. It may need caution in design and usage as they may carry a lot of punch.

Electric double layer capacitor an eFlywheel

Also known as Ultracap, Goldcap, Supercap - Electric double layer capacitor, In Farads, like batteries, Energy Reservoirs or eFlywheel.

In Product Safety terms; The Battery has a Internal Resistance, but a Supercap does not. When used in Values like 100F and is fully charged, an Internal or External Breakdown of Insulation or Short Circuit may Occur. The Heat Generated is Enormous. Murphy's Law says such things happen..

Supercap at Wikipedia

Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) or SuperCapacitor

DLCAP - Electric Double Layer Capacitor - Nippon

They have a range of Supercapacitors upto 2500F at 2.5V and Modules like 400F and 15V. There are two types Prismatic and Cylindrical. In comparison to batteries - multi-million cycles of charge-discharge is possible.

EverCAP - Double Layer Capacitors - Nichicon

They have two types, High Power Density for a large current discharge. High Energy Density for a long backup time. Over a million Charge/Discharge cycles. High Efficiency. Capable of fully discharging to zero volts.

Some things to note for a design engineer. The EDLC or Electric Double Layer Capacitors ...
  • Specified Endurance and end of life.
  • Excess Vibration can alter Specs.
  • Caution - The maximum temperature.
  • Specs are dependent on Temperature.
  • Maintain Low ripple current on Charge/Discharge.
  • It is Polarized like a Electrolytic cap.
  • Not Hot parts or Heatsink near cap.
The Double Layer Capacitors developed by WIMA are storage capacitors with highest capacitance values in the Farad range.

GTO Capacitors - WIMA

They are among others suited to serve as batteries, can deliver considerably higher currents for a short time, however, and are maintenance free.

SuperCapacitors - WIMA - These EDLC supercap has one-tenth of energy, but delivers over 10 times of power due to ultra low ESR. In Comparison with a Battery. A Lifetime of over 500,000 cycles.

Xelled Supercapacitor - Vinatech

Some Specs
  • Rating 2.5V / 2.7V
  • High power density (low internal resistance)
  • High electrical current, instant power back-up applied

Tuesday, March 08, 2016

Science a Foundation for Technology

These books Electricity and Magnetism, Optics and The Modern Revolution in Physics are very useful for any student of electronics. To have sound science foundation, Physics and Chemistry are very important for an Electrical/Electronics Student.

Biology and Environment learning is important for the Analytical and Medical Equipment designer. Chemistry is important for the study of materials which enable us to make new components and semiconductors. Maths cannot be ignored, it needs no special mention. Numbers are everywhere, this is the most important part of science.

Science a Foundation for Technology

Electricity and Magnetism Optics The Modern Revolution in Physics

Light and Matter: open-source physics textbooks

Electricity is Shockingly Simple

Our Nervous System works on a Electrochemical Electricity. Brain is an Organic Chemical Computer. The Thunderbolt is just an overgrown electric spark. You know the shocking facts about the electric eel. Underwater creatures can illuminate themselves, could be like OLED.

All your Home and Office runs on electrons. Electric cars are already a reality. This page will charge you with Electrical Facts you ought to know.

See the electric eel too.

Electricity Posters - Education - National Physical Laboratory

WikiCiencia - Science and Tech Portal

Devoted to electronics and computing. Featured articles

Control Systems - What are the control systems, Types of automation. Solar Cells - Photovoltaic or photoelectric cells. Operation of semiconductor PN junction.

Includes collaborative wiki on subjects like Semiconductors, Communications, Electricity.

WikiCiencia - Science and Technology Collaborative

Contents

Basic Electronics
Basics of Electronics
Product Production
Work Discipline
Testing Points
Learning Electronics
Electronics Theory

Production Notes
Prototype Fabrication
Electrical Circuits
Electromechanical


Library
Scots Guide Electronics
Engineering - Wikibooks
Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
DC Circuits UOG
Socratic Electronics
Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


Product Design
Product Development
Constant Current Source
Good Voltage Regulators
Insulation Resistance
Digital Insulation Tester
DN Schematic PCB 04
DN Product Design 07


Hobby Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
LED brightness control
555 Incredible Chip
Process Control
liquid level measurement
Thermocouples and RTD
Design ADC Interface uC
Thermocouple Amplifier
IA Instrumentation 02
Temperature on DMM
Optical Proximity Switch
Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


Test Measurement
Instrumentation Automation
NI Test and Measurement
DMM Digital Multi Meter
Oscilloscope in T&M
IA Automation 01
Build Instruments
Tektronix T&M Equipment
Educators Corner – Agilent


Power Electronics
UPS Background
Transformer Connections
DN Power Electronics 03
DN Power Electronics 02
Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


Embedded
Interfacing Microcontrollers
Embedded Process Control
80C31 8052 Microcontroller
Microprocessors and uC
Embedded Systems Design

Components
Good Voltage Regulators
Relays and Contactors
Potentiometers Trimpots
Prototype Boards Types
Types of Capacitors
Types of Switches
Resistors How they Work
Coils Transformers SMPS
Mains Transformers Types
DN Components Selection 05

Tutor Gadgets
Count-Up Timer
Digital Logic Gates
Electronics Tutors

History
Teaching Instruments
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Muntzing a Circuit Design
Teralab Electronics projects
Historical Instruments


Tables, Charts, Videos
Binary and Hex
Resistor Color Code
Ohms Law
Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
High Resistance Materials

Analog
School - Analog Design
DN Analog Basics 06
DN Op-Amps 01
TI Semiconductors