Monday, May 08, 2017

From Virtual Anthropomorphic Robots to Androids

Robotics is the Magnum Opus of Engineering, It combines Electronics, Mechanical, Computing and also the toughest science know to mankind.... Wireless Networking!

Ethernet Networking itself is complex, A self healing, hack proof and plug-play Wireless Router has to be the first step to make safe robots.

From Virtual Anthropomorphic Robots to Androids

Just imagine a Wireless Router or even a Internet Router as easy to tune as a FM radio, no entering numbers, no admin with browser. Just keep it in a room and all gadgets and computers form a fuzzy network, all by themselves. The very idea of technology is to make things simple, cost-effective and efficient.

The real need of robots now is to avoid Humans in Hazardous Environment. Right from Outer Space to working in a Plant with Toxic Chemical Gases, Even machinery and equipment that injures the limbs or damages the eyes.

Virtual Robotics Lab - building a mobile robot

Virtualization in Robotics -

If workers can wear a coat of sensors with force feedback actuators, they can control a semi-automatic robot in Real-Time. This enables a worker to navigate a robot into a hazardous environment, perform an upgrade or make repairs. An accident or mishap will damage the robot and it can be easily rebuilt or maintained.

The robot is automatic and will have reflexes defined by software. The wireless networking will connect the Robot mechanically to a human in a safe enclosure. This makes the Worker present virtually inside the Robot, because he is connected by optical, aural and mechanical-muscle feedback-sensors. This will create Virtual Anthropomorphic Robots for Industrial use and may help to finally develop Fuzzy Robots or Androids, which is still in the relm of science fiction.

K-12 Experiments in Robotic Software
The ROVer Ranch is an interactive, Web-based robotics workshop for assembling the hardware and instructions for a software robot to perform a mission in a virtual environment.

Animatronics is a multi-disciplinary field which integrates anatomy, robots, mechatronics, and puppetry resulting in lifelike animation. Animatronic figures are often powered by pneumatics, hydraulics, and/or by electrical means, and can be implemented using both computer control and human control, including teleoperation.

VirtualRobot is a freeware software suite
Its beginning, on 1998, was motivated by the need of a remote graphical application for programming, monitoring and simulating multi-robot cells on the control system GENERIS (Generalised Software Control System for Industrial Robots) developed by European Commission Joint Research Centre.

From delabs Notes Started around 2005

Friday, May 05, 2017

Omega Engineering - Technical Reference Section

Source for process measurement and control. Everything from thermocouples to chart recorders. Temperature, flow and level, data acquisition.

Established in 1962, Omega started as a manufacturer of thermocouples. Now it is a Technical Supported Marketplace for Industrial and Engineering; components and equipment. It is also a Engineering Service with custom product and system solutions for your Automation or Laboratory needs.

Omega Engineering - Industrial System Materials

Omega Engineering - Industrial System Materials

Omega's Technical Reference Section. Find technical articles and reference material about their products and technologies. Omega's Temperature Handbook Technical Reference Section.

Omega Engineering - Technical Reference Section
 
Whether you are an Industrial Control Engineer, Equipment Manufacturer or doing Research in a Laboratory; these Catalogs and Books are a Valuable Reference, from one of the Oldest and Reliable Source of Technical Information and Products. - delabs

8/16-Channel Thermocouple/Voltage Input USB Data Acquisition Module

The OM-DAQ-USB-2401 is a portable USB 2.0 full speed thermocouple/voltage input data acquisition module that can be used with either desktop or laptop PCs.

OMEGA Engineering, Inc.
One Omega Drive P.O. Box 4047 Stamford, Connecticut 06907-0047, USA

Wednesday, May 03, 2017

Test Measurement and Test jigs

Test Tools are needed for Troubleshooting and Repairing Electronic Gadgets, Equipment, Electrical Panels and Machines. Precision Instruments are required for calibration of field and machine control electronics. These are also required by the R&D engineer for design and development of new products and trying out new concepts.

Test and Measurement

Test Measurement and Test jigs - delabs

In Production testing, Production Engineering, Quality Assurance QA-QC etc. You need to build Test Jigs, Configure Automated Testing depending on the size of project or budget allocated; yet it has to be made flexible, scalable and modular. These require instruments or blocks that can be adapted and reconfigured or even interface with a computing network for automated testing, reporting and analysis.

Special Electronics come with every tool or gadget these days, A Slide calipers has a LCD display, Digital Readouts on mechanical instruments can help measure even sub-microns easily. Analytical and Chemical Instrumentation is another specialized niche. Then we have medical instrumentation which is more demanding in quality and requires sensors that are small, very sensitive and safe.
Instrumentation goes into all these and beyond. The day we find water on mars, It is only because of a precision instrument at the helm of things.

These are basic measuring circuits you can build for your home lab. I have documented a lab DMM i had built for my use many years ago. the circuits may have errors, build it only if you understand.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Interactive Examples and Exercises - Jim Svoboda

James A. Svoboda - ECE Department, Clarkson University has created numerous interactive examples throughout the textbook - Introduction to Electric Circuits. Interactive Examples made of Java Applets.

Interactive Examples and Exercises - Jim Svoboda

The Interactive Exercise shown here considers a similar, but different, circuit. Like the Interactive Example, the Interactive Exercise poses a problem, then accepts and checks the user's answer. Student learning is further supported by extensive help, in the form of worked example problems, available from within the Interactive Exercise using the “Worked Example” button.

Interactive Examples and Exercises - Jim Svoboda

Circuit Design Lab

The Circuit Design Lab consists of several Java applets, each providing an opportunity to experiment with the design of a particular circuit:

Variations of this problem are obtained using the “New Problem” button. We can peek at the answer using the “Show Answer” button. The Interactive Example and Exercises provide hundreds of addition practice problems with countless variations, all with answers that are checked immediately by the computer.

Monday, April 17, 2017

Periodic Table and other Calculators

Periodic table of the elements contains the basic data about the elements in five languages.
Periodic Table and other Calculators

Chemistry Assistant - scientific calculator for fast calculations of molecular weight, quadratic equations, chemicals for preparations of solutions and statistic analysis.


EniG. Chemistry Assistant is an expression calculator for fast calculation of molecular weight of compounds by simple entry of chemical formula, and replaces the element symbols with their atomic weight. The program translates texts with chemical element symbols or without them into a mathematical expression and calculates them. The program includes functions for statistical analysis, solving the quadratic equation, physical constants, and prepare solution calculator
Periodic Table of the Elements - shows the change of the standard state of elements with the change of temeperature on 7 languages.
  • EniG. Periodic Table of the Elements
  • ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
  • Printable periodic table - Colour version
  • Scientific calculator for chemists - the best online scientific calculator for chemists.

Thursday, April 06, 2017

Analog Op-Amp Interactive Tutors

I have made some Web Widgets, these are analog opamp tutors. Interactive Tutorial with Simulated Meters and Potentiometers, demonstrating how Operational Amplifier functions in different configurations.

Interactive Tutorials using Virtual Electronic Components 

Slide the Potentiometers just like you would operate a Sliding Control. Drag the Knob on Pot to increase or decrease the resistance. The Resistance is shown is blue letters and dynamically alters value as you slide the pot.


The mV Source is varied by just moving mouse pointer over the two buttons, no clicking. This reduces finger strain and also you have a long lasting mouse. The mV buttons are special, the variation picks up speed if you let the mouse pointer remain on the button. This is Ramp-up and Ramp-down. This enables you to set it faster with just two buttons.

Finally you have a DVM a Digital Volt Meter that just Displays the Voltage at any Point, this readout value has to be noted down.

Analog Electronics Tutorials
If you wish to examine the code - Analog Tutorials Project Page.

Monday, March 06, 2017

Good Earthing Prevents Shocks

Good Earthing or Grounding is needed for Human Safety it also Prolongs Appliance Life. Earthing in the olden days was done like this, i have just mixed what i have heard with my common sense and this is what it may be.

Do it professionally, do it with the help of qualified Electrical Engineers. Do not cut costs here.

Make a deep pit, 4 feet deep, 1/2 feet dia, put long copper rods ( GI pipes or lead pipes were also used). Let the copper rods be driven deeper than the four feet that has been dug. mesh the rods with copper mesh or wire (GI chicken mesh). Fill the pit with all the conductive things which are bio-degradable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and non-soluble. They used coal, charcoal, salt, scrap metals. (now they have a polymer conductive gel). Terminate the copper rods to a thick copper wire run it to your mains box in a way it cannot be cut or broken when gardening etc.

Good Earthing Prevents Shocks

The mains box should be fitted with HRC fuses and MCBs as required, use a ELCB too. The MCB trips when a over current load is drawn, there are both thermal (thermostat technology) and electromagnetic (relay technology) MCBs. The ELCB does not have a earth wire, it trips when the current in the live and neutral paths are unequal. When the difference is say 20mA it trips. This 20mA would have gone thru the ground wire or thru a person giving shock. Also use Over Voltage and Under Voltage Trips if possible, Many equipment fail due to this.
  • HRC -- High Rupture Capacity.
  • MCB -- Miniature Circuit Breaker.
  • ELCB -- Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker.
  • GI -- Galvanized Iron
Also do not forget a lightning rod on the top of the house, whose path to ground is far from the earth pit. Lightning also zaps phones etc. Use Zener barriers for all interfaces between equipment and isolation transformers.

Earthing system

Cable TV wires, phone wires, and mains wires all may get mixed up. During rainy days even a phone line or TV cable may give shock or blow input circuits in equipment. This may be due to mains leakage or lightning.

Before you touch any metal object, cross your fingers, better still buy a long neon tester.

delabs Technologies - EE Notes

    Sunday, March 05, 2017

    DC Circuits - University of Guelph

    Start with the Basics like ohms law, resistors, voltage current. Learn the math and equations too.

    Schematic Diagrams, Complicated Circuits, Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Current Law, Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, Resistors in Series, Resistors in Parallel.

    DC Circuits - University of Guelph

    DC Circuits - University of Guelph

    Physics Tutorial Menu - Dimensional Analysis, Graphing Oscillating Fns, Torque and Rotational Motion, Simple Harmonic Motion.

    Friday, March 03, 2017

    Phoenix Science Experiments

    Phoenix allows you to develop science experiments  by connecting  sensor / control elements to a computer and access them through software.

    Phoenix Science Experiments

    Phoenix depends heavily on Python language. The data acquisition, analysis and writing simulation programs to teach science and computation.

    Different sensors elements can be interfaced and accessed by few lines of Pythoncode. Phoenix utilizes the power of personal computers for experiment control, data acquisition and its mathematical analysis.

    Phoenix Science Experiments

    PMDK is an easy-to-use, low cost micro-controller development system. The hardware consists of an ATmega16MCU, LCD display and regulated DC supply. All the I/O pins of the MCU are available on sockets.

    The instrument is designed using locally available low cost components and the design is freely available for commercial production. Design supports hardware plug-in modules for expansion. Phoenix is developed using Free Software tools.

    The serial and USB versions can be easily interfaced to a PC. They can also be programmed through the serial/USB ports after uploading a bootloader program to ATmega16.

    Sunday, February 12, 2017

    Tektronix Test and Measurement Equipment

    Tektronix electronic test, measurement and monitoring equipment. Tektronix, Inc. is a United States corporation best known for its test and measurement equipment such as oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and video and mobile test protocol equipment. Tek is the nickname by which Tektronix is known to its employees, customers, and neighbors.

    Tektronix: Applications XYZs of Oscilloscopes

    Oscilloscopes are indispensable tools for anyone designing, manufacturing or repairing electronic equipment. In today's fast-paced world, engineers need the best tools available to solve their measurement challenges quickly and accurately.

    Tektronix Test and Measurement Equipment
    MSO/DPO Series Mixed Signal Oscilloscope Virtual Product Demo

    The company traces its roots to the electronics revolution that immediately followed World War II. The company's founders C. Howard Vollum and Melvin J. "Jack" Murdock invented the world's first triggered oscilloscope in 1946, a significant technological breakthrough. Tektronix, Inc. - Wikipedia

    Additional Reading
    Tektronix Oscilloscopes Museum

    This site contains photos, specs, material and stories about tube built Tektronix oscilloscopes up to the late 60´s. The reasons of outstanding quality and inspired engineering of these classic scopes formed the basis of the worldwide reputation of Tektronix.

    Friday, February 10, 2017

    Recording Technology History

    1877 - Edison made the first recording of a human voice ("Mary had a little lamb") on the first tinfoil cylinder phonograph Dec. 6 (the word "Halloo" may have been recorded in July on an early paper model derived from his 1876 telegraph repeater) and filed for an American patent Dec. 24.

    Recording Technology History

    John Kruesi built this first practical machine Dec. 1-6 from a sketch given to him by Edison that was made Nov. 29 (not on "Aug. 12" that Edison mistakenly wrote on another sketch in 1917).

    Edison Phonograph

    When Kruesi heard Edison's first words Dec. 6, he exclaimed "Gott in Himmel!" (but these words for "God in Heaven" were not recorded and thus have been forgotten). Others before Edison had tried to record sound, but Edison and his tinfoil phonograph were the first to succeed.

    History of sound recording

    The phonograph expanded on the principles of the phonautograph. Perfected by Thomas Edison in 1878, the phonograph was a device with a cylinder covered with an impressionable material such as tin foil, lead, or wax on which a stylus etched grooves.

    Sunday, February 05, 2017

    Lead Acid Batteries Usage in Power Systems

    The Lead Acid Batteries are used in Automobiles and UPS - Uninterrupted Power Supplies. Battery Banks and Arrays are used in Home and Industrial Power Systems with Solar and Wind power charging too.

    Lead Acid Batteries Usage in Power Systems

    These batteries have survived many other types, for rugged high power usage, even beyond 100Kva. It is all the more important for us, to learn how to use them properly. Intelligent charge controllers and charge-discharge cycle regulating managers, will ensure a long lifespan for optimum cost-effective usage of this Electro-Chemical Wonder.
    A home power station is what we all should try and build on our own, Make designs that are serviceable and maintainable. Solar Power, Waste Organic fuel Power, Even Pedal power Low cost Systems need to be designed.

    On the other side, switch to low power Tablet PCs, even if the power of computation is less. Use Applications that use less resources, Switch to Open Source. A HandHeld PC should not take more than 12 watts on normal usage. Use Web Applications hosted on Green Servers, here the power of computation is shared.

    The wastage of power in many companies are enormous on standby. Some have many systems turned on with hardly any usage, I have seen in an office a 300 W load of a computer; turned on for a whole week, for just sending a few mails and printing a few documents. Certainly the Telex machine was eco friendly and even the electronic typewriter was sensible.

    A Green solution could be New Desktop Computing Standard - The quiescent losses in this is only the wifi server cube, which can serve 6 tablets or UMPC. So if 6-12 people are using computers, many desktops need not be on. Tablets, Laptops and Notebooks consume less power and run on batteries. Thin Custom Notebook and Tablet Clients can use one OpenOffice on the WiFi Application Server cube

    Sunday, January 08, 2017

    Relative Humidity Table for Hygrometer

    Wet bulb and Dry bulb Digital Humidity Meters or Hygrometers are accompanied with a chart for evaluating % RH. This chart is in PDF format below.

    Table of Relative Humidity or RH 370 Kb PDF

    The Sensors that could be used are Two RTD PT-100 and Two 48*96 Digital Indicators. The Wet bulb had a Moist Wick Compartment where water has to be refilled periodically.

    Here are some Traditional Hygrometers. Even today these are used and work very well. Humidity and Temperature control is also important for HVAC - Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

    Relative Humidity Table for Hygrometer

    When Weaving Textiles, Humidifiers or Atomizers are used to maintain the Humidity of the Work Area where the Looms are running. A Horse Hair Hygrometer is used to Manually Monitor and Regulate the Humidity. In Offices where the Air Conditioning needs a Humidity regulation the method used to Determine Humidity is by using a Wet and Dry Bulb Hygrometer or a Sling Psychrometer. Human and Animal Health is also sensitive to these parameters.

    Related Resources -

    Tuesday, January 03, 2017

    Smithsonian - The Chip Collection

    The National Museum of American History's Chip Collection consists of individual donations of objects, images and documenation that traces the history of integrated circuits.

    Smithsonian - The Chip Collection

    The Chip Collection is a continuing work-in-progress concerning a small part of the permanent collection of the Division of Information Technology & Society's Electricity Collections.

    ICE, originally located in Phoenix & Scottsdale, Arizona, was purchased after ICE's 30-year collection had been donated & accessioned by the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution.

    Smithsonian - The Chip Collection

    Pictures
    This site's refrence pictures, diagrams, x-rays, thumbnail selections, and in some cases actual logbook pages in a single category to make your research faster.

    Chip Fun
    An important though unusual aspect of the history of integrated circuit technology is buried deep inside many chips, we call this chip art.

    Sunday, January 01, 2017

    Museum Of Electricity - Charles Brush

    Yes, there were electric lights powered by central stations before Edison's! Carbon arc lamps saw extensive use throughout the USA and the world from the late 1870s on. - Charles Brush

    Museum Of Electricity - Charles Brush

    The General Electric Company was formed in 1892. It was the result of a meger between the Edison General electric Company and the Thomson-Houston Company, which themselves incorporated several other companies.

    Museum Of Electricity - Charles Brush

    Electricity, technology, and lots of arcs and sparks!

    Museum Of Electricity contains Vintage Electrical and Historical images and description. They include the Edison Lamp, Tesla Coils, Lightning and Atmospheric Electricity and the .....

    Amazing Jacob's Ladder

    So how do they work?  First two conductive metal rods are positioned in a rough “V” shape with a slight space between them at the base.  A sufficient voltage differential is provided from a high voltage transformer to breakdown the air in the gap between the rods.

    Contents

    Basic Electronics
    Basics of Electronics
    Product Production
    Work Discipline
    Testing Points
    Learning Electronics
    Electronics Theory

    Production Notes
    Prototype Fabrication
    Electrical Circuits
    Electromechanical


    Library
    Scots Guide Electronics
    Engineering - Wikibooks
    Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
    DC Circuits UOG
    Socratic Electronics
    Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


    Product Design
    Product Development
    Constant Current Source
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Insulation Resistance
    Digital Insulation Tester
    DN Schematic PCB 04
    DN Product Design 07


    Hobby Circuits
    VU Meter Circuits
    LED brightness control
    555 Incredible Chip
    Process Control
    liquid level measurement
    Thermocouples and RTD
    Design ADC Interface uC
    Thermocouple Amplifier
    IA Instrumentation 02
    Temperature on DMM
    Optical Proximity Switch
    Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


    Test Measurement
    Instrumentation Automation
    NI Test and Measurement
    DMM Digital Multi Meter
    Oscilloscope in T&M
    IA Automation 01
    Build Instruments
    Tektronix T&M Equipment
    Educators Corner – Agilent


    Power Electronics
    UPS Background
    Transformer Connections
    DN Power Electronics 03
    DN Power Electronics 02
    Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


    Embedded
    Interfacing Microcontrollers
    Embedded Process Control
    80C31 8052 Microcontroller
    Microprocessors and uC
    Embedded Systems Design

    Components
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Relays and Contactors
    Potentiometers Trimpots
    Prototype Boards Types
    Types of Capacitors
    Types of Switches
    Resistors How they Work
    Coils Transformers SMPS
    Mains Transformers Types
    DN Components Selection 05

    Tutor Gadgets
    Count-Up Timer
    Digital Logic Gates
    Electronics Tutors

    History
    Teaching Instruments
    Charles Proteus Steinmetz
    Muntzing a Circuit Design
    Teralab Electronics projects
    Historical Instruments


    Tables, Charts, Videos
    Binary and Hex
    Resistor Color Code
    Ohms Law
    Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
    High Resistance Materials

    Analog
    School - Analog Design
    DN Analog Basics 06
    DN Op-Amps 01
    TI Semiconductors