delabs Circuits

Showing posts with label Analog. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Analog. Show all posts

Thursday, April 06, 2017

Analog Op-Amp Interactive Tutors

I have made some Web Widgets, these are analog opamp tutors. Interactive Tutorial with Simulated Meters and Potentiometers, demonstrating how Operational Amplifier functions in different configurations.

Interactive Tutorials using Virtual Electronic Components 

Slide the Potentiometers just like you would operate a Sliding Control. Drag the Knob on Pot to increase or decrease the resistance. The Resistance is shown is blue letters and dynamically alters value as you slide the pot.

The mV Source is varied by just moving mouse pointer over the two buttons, no clicking. This reduces finger strain and also you have a long lasting mouse. The mV buttons are special, the variation picks up speed if you let the mouse pointer remain on the button. This is Ramp-up and Ramp-down. This enables you to set it faster with just two buttons.

Finally you have a DVM a Digital Volt Meter that just Displays the Voltage at any Point, this readout value has to be noted down.

Analog Electronics Tutorials
If you wish to examine the code - Analog Tutorials Project Page.

Friday, August 05, 2016

EE Books of Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind book on Analog CMOS design is a good reference for students and covers Power Electronic concepts like Switching Regulators and Low Drop-Out Regulators.

The Delta-Sigma Converter A/D and Zero-Crossing Detectors on Mixed Design. Communications circuits like Timers and Oscillators . Phase-Locked Loops and Filters too.

Designing Analog Chips by Hans Camenzind

EE Books of Hans Camenzind

Hans Camenzind was born and raised in Switzerland and moved to the U.S. after college. He received an MSEE from Northeastern University and an MBA from the University of Santa Clara. After several years doing research in the Boston area, he moved to the West Coast to join Signetics (now Philips) and later started his own company, Interdesign. After heading it for seven years he sold Interdesign to Plessey.

Much Ado About Almost Nothing

This book describes the history of the electron, the "almost nothing", from the days it was unknown until our present time. Luckily the author writes in a language that any layman can easily understand, without boring the expert either. Thanks to clear explanations and many illustrations, the functioning of magnets, cathode-ray-tubes or transistors becomes less of a mystery.

Wednesday, June 08, 2016

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

Here are two important educational reference books from Texas Instruments in PDF format.

"While in the process of reviewing Texas Instruments applications notes, including those from the recently acquired Burr-Brown - I uncovered a couple of treasures, this handbook on active RC networks and one on op amp applications. These old publications, from 1966 and 1963, respectively, are some of the finest works on op amp theory that I have ever seen. Nevertheless, they contain some material that is hopelessly outdated. This includes everything from the state of the art of amplifier technology, to the parts referenced in the document - even to the symbol used for the op amp itself:"

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications - PDF
by Bruce Carter and Thomas R. Brown - sboa092a.pdf - 2.1 Mb

The operational amplifier is an extremely efficient and versatile device. Its applications span the broad electronic industry filling requirements for signal conditioning, special transfer functions, analog instrumentation, analog computation, and special systems design. The analog assets of simplicity and precision characterize circuits utilizing operational amplifiers.

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Active RC Networks - PDF
by Bruce Carter and L.P. Huelsman - sboa093a.pdf - 3.6 Mb

This is a handbook on active RC networks. The first question about this subject that one might ask is, "What is an active RC network?" The answer is simple. It is collection of resistors, capacitors, and an active element (or elements). Viewed in another sense; it is a circuit without inductors. Why leave out inductors? There are many reasons. First of all, the inductor is a relatively large and heavy element. This is especially true at frequencies in the audio range and below.

Wednesday, May 11, 2016

Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

Comprises Op Amp Basics, Specialty Amplifiers, Using Op Amps with Data Converters, Sensor Signal Conditioning, Analog Filters, Signal Amplifiers, Hardware and Housekeeping Techniques, and Op Amp History.

Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

In the past several years, many advances have been made in operational amplifiers and the latest op amps have powerful new features, making them more suitable for use in many products requiring weak signal amplification, such as medical devices, communications technology, optical networks, and sensor interfacing.

Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

Walt Jung, analog design guru and author of the classic IC OP-Amp Cookbook (which has gone into three editions since 1974), has now written what may well be the ultimate op amp reference book.

As Jung says, “This book is a compendium of everything that can currently be done with op amps.” This book is brimming with up-to-date application circuits, handy design tips, historical perspectives, and in-depth coverage of the latest techniques to simplify op amp circuit designs and improve their performance.

Analog Dialogue: Analog Devices

See Application Notes too on Amplifiers and Comparators, Current Sense Amplifiers, Differential Amplifiers, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Isolation Amplifiers.

Monday, October 19, 2015

The Philbrick Archive and Operational Amplifier

This site is a free non-profit repository of materials from GAP/R George A Philbrick Researches, the company that launched the commercial use of the Operational Amplifier in 1952.

The Philbrick Archive and Operational Amplifier

The Philbrick Archive - Bob Pease and The OpAmp

The first commercial Operational amplifier was the K2-W op-amp. It was based on the amplifier used in the Philbrick modular Analog-Computor "black boxes ".

First Opamp K2-W op-amp

That amplifier's basic circuit architecture, in turn, was probably inspired by an earlier amplifier designed by Loebe Julie (Dan Sheingold and Bob Pease, thanks for helping me with this information). The K2-W Operational Amplifier entered the commercial market in 1952.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Linear Circuit Design Handbook – Hank Zumbahlen

Linear Circuit Design Handbook, edited by Hank Zumbahlen (Newnes, 2008), bridges the gap between circuit component theory and practical circuit design. Effective analog circuit design requires a strong understanding of core linear devices and how they affect analog circuit design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook – Hank Zumbahlen

This book provides complete coverage of important analog devices and how to use them in designing linear circuits, and serves as a useful learning tool and reference for design engineers involved in analog and mixed-signal design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook - Hank Zumbahlen

Chapters Include

Sensors, RF/IF Circuits, Converters. Analog Filters. Power Management and …
  • Chapter 5: Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems
  • Chapter 7: Data Converter Support Circuitry
  • Chapter 11: Overvoltage Effects on Analog Integrated Circuits
  • Chapter 12: Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design Issues

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Op Amp Circuit Collection- National Semiconductor

Op Amp Circuit Collection - National Semiconductor - Application Note 31

Op Amp Circuit Collection- National Semiconductor

This is a like a Opamp Design Quick Reference. All the generic configurations and also example designs help you start building the Analog Blocks for your Instrument, Equipment or Gadget. It would be ideal if you test out all the configurations on a breadboard. Then try building a Measurement device with demanding specs. A Micro-ohmmeter is a suggestion i would give for testing your skills.

Operational Amplifiers - National Semiconductor

Contact resistance of connectors is in micro-ohms. Here contact resistance can also be affected by contamination, thermoelectric EMF. One Amp of current is passed thru the specimen, a connector and the voltage measured. The measured voltage is in micro-volts, a small analog challenge. Sometimes the test current can be even 10 Amps pulsed and the voltage measured quickly. A sample and hold synced with the pulse has to be designed. The voltage sample is taken in the middle of the pulse. Build such things, that will build the analog skills. Remember the Real world is Analog.

Monday, November 08, 2010

Op amps for everyone – Ron Mancini

The operational amplifier ("op amp") is the most versatile and widely used type of analog IC, used in audio and voltage amplifiers, signal conditioners, signal converters, oscillators, and analog computing systems. Almost every electronic device uses at least one op amp. This book is Texas Instruments' complete professional-level tutorial and reference to operational amplifier theory and applications.

Here is a PDF Version from Texas Instruments - Amplifiers & Linear

Op Amps for Everyone Design Guide (Rev. B)

Preview the Book at Google Books -

Op amps for everyone: design reference By Ron Mancini

Sunday, January 18, 2009

Design Notes - Analog Basics - 06

Building discrete semiconductor and passive designs, using Opamps and Mixed Design Circuits are the first step in electronics. Most consumer Electronics have a high analog circuit content. Even in Embedded Systems the interface design that matters for real time systems is an analog circuit.

Here are some more analog points in my old notes.

  • The Contact resistance of connectors, thermocouple effects in connectors and solder joints and thermal gradients over the PCB can cause errors when you measure in high resolution.
  • High impedance points of circuit like 500 kilo ohm and above can pick up AC noise and DC leakage currents. this will affect the performance of circuit, so for DC you have to put a 'gaurd ring'of the signal ground around that point in PCB. For RF you have to shield with things related to iron and mu metal, for low signals even a copper shield will do.
  • Unused high impedance inputs of opamps or gates or any IC should be pulled-up or down.
  • High Impedance inputs which have to float can be made noise immune with a small cap to ground. Like a 102 CD.
  • If an opamp circuit with feedback oscillates, then a cap at the right place can stop it, it will dampen the oscillations, just like eddy current dampening in moving coil meters. One way is a cap across the feedback resistor another way a cap between inv- and non-inv+ inputs. A closed loop system may oscillate at border points. The value of cap depends on how fast (response time) the system has to be and the type of oscillations seen.
  • Inputs and Outputs are the points of electric abuse, opto isolate, use zener barriers with overrated devices.
  • If one layer of PCB is a ground plane and second layer has wide tracks they may form a capacitance (say 1pF) with the PCB glass epoxy as dielectric, more so in multilayer PCB as dielectric is thinner.
  • In a 3-1/2 digit meter circuit you may need 0.1% Resistors 10ppm or less, so in a 4-1/2 meter we need 0.01% Resistors 1ppm or less or temperature compensation circuits and trimpots.
  • Tolerance of resistors in a precision circuit and thermal drift of both opamps and resistors; can show movements in high resolution measurements. So the whole circuit may have to be built into a sealed 40 deg C Instrumentation Oven sealed in glass wool. This will work both in cold and hot climates.
  • Humidity, chemical fumes, dust and grime should not reach the analog circuit areas. Depending on application, a coating may have to be given or the entire unit hermetically sealed.
  • Use MFR (metal film resistor) 1% in all analog designs and if possible use only MFR for better reliability.
  • Glass epoxy PCB have high insulation resistance, above 10 tera ohms, and are not hygroscopic which means they do not drink water vapor, this makes them very suitable for precision instrumentation and sensitive circuits.

Thursday, January 15, 2009

Design Notes - Analog and Opamps - 01

LM335 and LM336 -

LM335 is a temp sensor, LM335 . use it for temp for CJC. Temperature Sensors - RTDs and Thermocouples in  Temperature Measurement.

LM336-2.5 is an voltage Reference. precision 2.5V shunt regulator diodes, Applied as a precision 2.5V low voltage reference for digital voltmeters, power supplies or in opamp signal conditioning.

Current Loop -

4-20 ma will drive DC drives, motors and steam valves. It is a current loop, for long distance transmission, current loop is not prone to noise and hum, EMI RFI. As it is a small power transmission no loss of data, also many equipments can be in one data loop. A single transmitter with 4-20mA out can drive a strip-chart recorder, motor, controller and SCADA input. all in a series loop. Current loop is like 4-20 mA

Opamp Notes and Types
  • TL062, LF353, TL072, fet input. 1 tera ohm input imp.
  • OP07 higher price, 1 giga ohm. 75uV offset.
  • LF353 pin to pin replacement of TL062-72 and 82.
  • LM358 works on single supply too, low price, inp imp 1 meg.
  • LM324 Quad, works of batteries well.
  • All work best with dual +/- 5 V or more. LM7805 -LM 7905.
Analog Electronics: Basic Circuits of Operational Amplifiers

Examine the operation of the following circuits of operational amplifiers: inverting amplifier, summing amplifier, difference amplifier, differentiator, and integrator.

Remembering Bob Pease

Remembering Bob Pease

Points to Note -
  • Analog ground (opamps), digital ground (CMOS) and power ground (relays and LED) should be separate, (linked at root)
  • Glass epoxy PCB have high insulation resistance, above 10 tera ohms, and are not hygroscopic which means they do not drink water vapor, this makes them very suitable for precision instrumentation and sensitive circuits.
  • When you measure DC levels in 16bit accuracy or more you need resistors which have temp. coeff. of 10ppm, or you may have to put the entire circuit in a stable 45 deg oven. Thermoelectric effects, EMI, RFI, pA Leakage currents, ground loops, contact resistance all can make the readings drift and unusable.
  • High impedance points of circuit like 500 kilo ohm and above can pick up AC noise and DC leakage currents. this will affect the performance of circuit, so for DC you have to put a guard ring of the signal ground around that point in PCB. For RF you have to shield with things related to iron and mu metal, for low signals even a copper shield will do.
  • Percentage and ppm: when percentage becomes like 0.001% it is difficult to manage, so we use ppm-parts per million.5% means 5 parts in 100 parts. 23 ppm means 23 parts per million parts. 0.001% - shift the dp-decimal point four places to right it is 10ppm. 0.01% is 100ppm which is the variation of value of mfr resistors on temperature change.
Learn this at my Industrial Process Control Circuits


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