Showing posts with label Basic-Electronics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Basic-Electronics. Show all posts

Thursday, November 06, 2014

Aaron Cake Electronics

Aaron Cake  has many electronic circuits and other electronics information in his archive that is online since the 90s. Antique electronics and Parallel Port Programming.

Aaron Cake Electronics

Aaron Cake Electronics

The Schematic Symbol Reference, How To Solder and Desolder helped many electronic beginners in building their Projects. This was a valuable resource in those days even though it appears common today. The internet was used to genuinely share useful learning and ideas.

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Electronics Work Culture and Discipline

Systematic and Meticulous work has its own Rewards. An Engineers Notebook or a Hobby Experiments Log Book can go a long way in making a Cauliflower out of every Cabbage. (The credits of the Vegetable Analogy goes to Mark Twain)

1. Keep Work Place Clean.

Clean Tables and shelves every day before closing office, Put Cut leads and Solder shots in a separate cup to be accumulated and disposed later as these are toxic. In this cup other irritants like staple pins can be added and these can be clubbed in a month and disposed off as one metallic bulk for recycling. Never bring coffee or food to work area, Keep a waste paper basket on your side.

2. Work carefully to avoid injury

When cutting leads hold the lead in the hand and cut or it will fly all over the place. A piece like that may land on another equipment and cause shorts or it may go right into your eyes and cause blindness. Lead and Iso propyl alcohol and other Chemicals may be dangerous for health if handled carelessly. Do not use fingers, and teeth as tools it is bound to cause a injury to repent a lifetime. Be extra careful with 230V AC and more so with 440V 1 tr 2mA thru your heart and a weak streak of luck may be the last experience you ever had. Do not press your Luck too hard.

Electronics Work Culture and Discipline

3. Protect Desk or table surface.

If you are cutting something let it not leave marks on table, even adhesive stains should not deface table, use a asbestos, Bakelite, fiberglass, hardboard surface which can be disposed once in a way. Before working put two layers of news paper on the table this prevents table from getting spoilt while soldering and newspapers being hygroscopic (water absorbent) they provide a natural antistatic surface to protect CMOS Ics and are nonconductors for any Live PCB kept on the paper.

4. Use tools and equipment's in a gentle manner.

When you use weller Iron use it as a heat transfer tool never use it for prying or crimping leads or just pressing use pliers or other tools for that.

5. Document what you do and vice versa.

Have a register in which you can make records of what you did to solve a problem or what you learnt while making an equipment this information is valuable for the company to develop production methods and also useful to your team to solve a similar problem. Share abilities and skills with fellow employees but don't share your company's technology and database with any other company. When you leave a company use only the abilities and skills in that broad area to evolve as a professional.

delabs notes - 80s and 90s

Saturday, March 15, 2014

Basics of Electronics

Basics of Electronics -

Electronics is the study of the antics of electrons, for that first a bit of static electricity which is the way non moving electrons behave.

Static Electricity -

Basics of Electronics
If you Rub a plastic comb or ruler on a dry cloth and hold it over very small bits of paper you will see the paper jump to the comb, this is electric charge an accumulation of electrons on the plastic comb which produced a field to attract the bits of paper.

Opposite charges attract each other, the comb now has negative charge pulls the bits of paper which is uncharged, and the comb loses its excess electrons to the bits of paper, the movement of electrons is current.

All Charged matter try to reach ground potential an uncharged state, which is the state of earth, earth is taken as zero potential.

Energy transforms from one form to another, when the comb was rubbed mechanical energy was changed to electric energy and the electric energy of the comb moved the paper, here electric energy changed back to mechanical energy.

When the comb was rubbed on the cloth friction caused vibration in the molecules of cloth, vibration causes heat which dislodges the electrons and these collect on the comb.

Same static electricity is the cause of lightning bolts and the crackling of your hair when you comb it on a dry day.
Insulators do not have free electrons but conductors have free electrons it is this reason the comb being an insulator could not stabilize its surface which had become charged, conductors like copper cannot get charged like this as electrons quickly distribute all over instead of accumulating on the surface. Conductors play an important role as they form the means to route the current formed by electrons to do work for us like lighting a bulb or running the Fan.
Electrons -
Like charges repel and unlike charges attract, This is because matter is assumed to be made of protons '+' , electrons '--' and neutrons '0' without charge. Protons could be absence of electrons or vice versa. What is important to remember is when stable matter is disturbed by friction, heat, light, other chemicals, even sound there is electrical activity which is interpreted in various ways even heat is an electrical activity a simple candle flame is also electrical activity, but we come out of that to study basic electronics which is the play of electrons in conductors, insulators and the most magical of them all the semiconductors.

The Ground that we walk on is made of mostly silicon dioxide or sand or quartz this silicon along with germanium and others are semiconductors, silicon forms most of the ICs in electronics. Selenium is another material but this is photoconductive, this is used in photocopying and printing. Gallium Arsenide is one other which is useful in high frequency components.

Most matters exhibit electrical properties piezoelectricity is one more, the long lasting gas lighter uses piezoelectricity (titanium derivative), these materials when hit generate electricity, this effect is used in record players (sapphire) to convert bumps on the record to electric voltages, batteries convert chemical energy to electric energy, and you know magnets produce electricity when moved over a conductor.

Conductors : Copper Cu , Aluminum Al, silver, gold, iron, tin, carbon, etc. .

Insulators : Wood, Glass, Ceramic, Mica, Sand, Paper, Cloth, Plastic. etc. .

Certain organic compounds are also conductors, and water with some electrolyte like salt is also a conductor but this is ionic or electrolytic conduction.

Wet wood or cloth with impurities can become very conductive and to some extent air itself becomes a bit conductive if humidity is very high. (RH relative humidity is high means the moisture content of air is high, very wet air).
DC and AC Current -
Current is the movement of electrons in a material, direct current is DC and alternating current is AC. If electrons move in a single direction it is DC.

Conventional Current flows from Positive point / terminal to a negative point / terminal.

{ the movement of electrons is opposite of this but don't bother about this was a bug fix done in those days :-) we all make mistakes }

A battery is the best example for a DC generator, The conventional current flows from higher potential + ve to lower -- ve, the water analogy of this is the + ve terminal is an overhead tank and the negative terminal is the ground tank the pipe carrying water is the conductor/wire and flow of water itself the current.

Positive + (red) and Negative -- (black) are called Polarities.
DC flows in a battery circuit as the battery by chemical reaction maintains one terminal with more electrons and the other with a shortage of electrons.

In AC the voltage or current alternates its direction periodically, in other words the polarities of the terminals change from + to -- and vice versa with respect to time.

Why AC ? this is a fundamental law of nature, from the macro movement of planets in the solar system to the micro movement of electrons in an atom there is a pattern called the sinusoidal waveform or sine graph or sine wave.

The movement of a pendulum is the best representation of a sine wave, when a magnet is rotated in a loop (coil) of wires or a coil is rotated in a magnetic field (near a magnet), the voltage that is generated is AC.

As rotation is the fundamental mechanical motion, it is also used to generate electricity which you use at home, AC power which is produced by moving magnets and coils of wire (generator) with the help of water power (hydroelectric waterfalls), steam, fossil fuel (petroleum,coal) driven machines, to nuclear plants.

"Sine graph is true even in the way civilizations have changed in history and to this day the life cycles of corporations, many believe when plotting a graph of profits or growth it is "up up and away" but the truth is that it is " up and down then round and round" !!"

- Solderman 1702

This is an old article i wrote, which may have errors or misconceptions, if you have any doubts verify with a Local Ham. If you want to study and learn the science yourself, then start here HyperPhysics.

Tuesday, June 09, 2009

Tables and Charts for Electronics

Tables, charts, quick reference cards, booklets and handbooks; are the most versatile tools of learning and putting the learning into applications. These should not have a lot of language or flowing text. These are - to the point, easy to remember, graphical, colorful (memory aid).

Electronic Tables and Charts

Electronic and Instrumentation Tables

Just like a circuit diagram, flow chart or ladder logic can graphically interface with a human mind, Tables and Charts easily embed into ones memory.

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

LED brightness controler - Jaroslav Belza

LED brightness controler - Jaroslav Belza

White LED lantern powered from USB port. Jaroslav Belza

delabs Notes-

R1 Limits the LED current when T1 is fully Turned on or saturated. P1 forms a Variable Potential Divider, The Turning of P1 Pot gives a 0 - 5 V Variable Voltage Proportional to the turning, if it is a Linear Pot.(Audio Systems use a Log Pot as the Ear Hearing response to sound is Non-Linear.). As the impedance of this Voltage source is a bit high, it is from a 5K pot, it cannot be loaded with a low value resistor like 100E or 1K.

The R1 should limit the current to an optimum value in relation to LED Brightness vs. Battery Life. T1 chosen must have a Max Ic of at least Five times the LED current, for a long lasting product.

R2 you can figure out from the beta of the transistor. That you can learn at Transistor Operation - HyperPhysics.

Thursday, April 17, 2008

Science Toys - Edutainment at Home

Make toys at home with common household materials, often in only a few minutes, that demonstrate fascinating scientific principles. See also the Science Blog, - Creator - Simon Field

Science Toys - Edutainment at Home

This Website is a valuable resource for students to learn basics and get interested in electronics and computers - delabs

Science Toys - Edutainment at Home

Electromagnetism: - An electric motor in 10 minutes

The motor is simply a battery, a magnet, and a small coil of wire you make yourself. There is a secret to making it (which I will of course share with you) which is at the same time clever and delightfully simple.

Other Projects - Fun with High Voltage, A 10 minute railgun, A 30 second motor.
    Radio: A quick and simple radio

    The reason a crystal radio does not need any batteries is the amazing capabilities of the human ear. The ear is extremely sensitive to very faint sounds. The crystal radio uses only the energy of the radio waves sent by radio transmitters.

    Others are Building a radio in 10 minutes, Build a portable crystal radio, A radio out of household items, A simple AM transmitter, The Three-Penny Radio.
      Computers and Electronics: A Computer Controlled Transmitter

      In this project we will build a very simple radio transmitter that you attach to a serial port on your computer. The computer then runs a free program that converts words you type into radio signals that are decoded by another computer, using a cheap radio receiver, and a sound card.

      More - A Free Space Laser Data Transmitter, Fun With Solderless Breadboards, A Simple 1 Watt Amplifier


        Basic Electronics
        Basics of Electronics
        Product Production
        Work Discipline
        Testing Points
        Learning Electronics
        Electronics Theory

        Production Notes
        Prototype Fabrication
        Electrical Circuits

        Scots Guide Electronics
        Engineering - Wikibooks
        Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
        DC Circuits UOG
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        Blobz Guide Electric Circuits

        Product Design
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        Constant Current Source
        Good Voltage Regulators
        Insulation Resistance
        Digital Insulation Tester
        DN Schematic PCB 04
        DN Product Design 07

        Hobby Circuits
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        LED brightness control
        555 Incredible Chip
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        IA Instrumentation 02
        Temperature on DMM
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        Analog Mux - Data Acquisition

        Test Measurement
        Instrumentation Automation
        NI Test and Measurement
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        Oscilloscope in T&M
        IA Automation 01
        Build Instruments
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        Educators Corner – Agilent

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        Mains Transformers Types
        DN Components Selection 05

        Tutor Gadgets
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        High Resistance Materials

        School - Analog Design
        DN Analog Basics 06
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        TI Semiconductors