delabs Circuits

Showing posts with label Basic-Tables. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Basic-Tables. Show all posts

Monday, August 18, 2014

Binary and Hex Numbers

Computers understand numbers and logic, as most are digital computers. The Binary Hexadecimal System is the way the numbers or logical commands are instructed to the computer. All input devices or sensors must finally talk this language to the CPU, and all outputs and actuators must be able to understand this numbers to do their job.

Binary and Hex Numbers

A bimetallic thermostat is like a simple mechanical computer. Where the bimetal response is the sensor input, the contacts are the output to actuator and the bimetal thermal behavior is of the nature of intelligence. Similarly we have opamps which can be real-time complex analog computers. And the Living Being are like biologicals robot which have all the things - a control systems, computers, sensors and actuators, even probably a wireless network. :-)

Binary Numbers
  • Bit is 0 or 1 ... one digit ... 0 could be 0 volts and 1 five volts.
  • Nibble is four bits, 4 digits, like 0010 , in hex a nibble is 0 to F.
  • Byte is eight bits, 8 digits, like 1100 0010 , in hex 00 to FF.
  • BCD binary coded decimal is binary code for numbers 0 to 9.
  • Learn more by reading asciicat here. Download and use.
Computer Science and of computer programming, while emphasizing the development and analysis of common data structures and algorithms.

CS152, Fundamentals of Computer Science II, and Programming Languages.

A Tutorial on Binary Numbers

Samuel A. Rebelsky
  • Basic Concepts Behind the Binary System
  • Binary Addition
  • Binary Multiplication
  • Binary Division
  • Conversion from Decimal to Binary
  • Negation in the Binary System
A Tutorial on Binary Numbers

Sunday, August 17, 2014

Resistor Color Code

The Resistors Value has to be Deciphered by understanding the well kept Secret Color Code that is known only to Makers, Ham Radio, and Engineers.

The Resistor have colored painted bands, makes electronic populated PCBs look attractive, but that was not the real purpose. It was an early innovation in what is called now Ergonomics of the Workplace. In other words it makes you spot values easily and also their magnitude.

If you find a black resistor on the PCB with no color stripes, it means it has burnt up and would have values less than 10K. You have to research the design to arrive at the value of that blown device.

1st band - 1st digit - Yellow = 4

2nd band - 2nd digit - Violet = 7

3rd band - Red = 2 -- number of zeros that follow -- means 4700 ohms -- 4.7 kilo ohms or 4k7

Resistor Color Code

For 4 banded ones, MFR 1% first 3 bands represent first three digits, and fourth band stands for the number of zeros that follow. 4.7k will be Yw Vt Bk Bn.

Right End Band is for tolerance

Brown Band 1% -- MFR Metal Film Resistor is used in Instrumentation Electronics.

Gold Band 5% -- CFR Carbon Film Resistor is common for Consumer Electronics.

Silver Stripe is 10%

Read more at my Basic Electrical Circuits

Thursday, August 14, 2014

Exponents - Giga Tera Pico Nano

In the Metric System you will encounter prefixes for numbers. In electronics, right from resistors to hard disks these units are used. So you have to have in your memory, at least the ones below, so that you place the correct value of cap or inductor in your circuit.

See SI Units or Metric Units to read more about these. R, C and L values are given these prefixes.

We have resistors like 10 Tera Ohms of Glass Surface Resistance to 1 Micro Ohms of a Small Copper Wire Resistance.

1 Pico Farad of Capacitance of two Large PCB Tracks in a Multi Layer PCB to 10 Milli Farad of a Huge Electrolytic Power Supply Filter.

Then Lastly 10 Nano Henrys Inductance of the Twisted Connector Cables in a Computer and 1 Henry of a Powerful Choke that can kickback 10 Kilo Volts when a 10 Amps current thru it is broken.

Exponents
Tera 1000,000,000,000 1.e+12
Giga 1000,000,000 1.e+9
Mega 1000,000 1.e+6
Kilo 1000 1.e+3
units 1 1.e+0
milli 1 / 1000 1.e-3
micro 1 / 1000,000 1.e-6
nano 1 / 1000,000,000 1.e-9
pico 1 / 1000,000,000,000 1.e-12

Electronic Tables and Charts

Electronics is Fun, is it Not.

 Just Google 0.1% or 1000/1e6 or 1000/1000000 ....answer in the calculator that pops up is same. Read "Parts Per Million - PPM" as used in Resistors. 1000 ppm is 0.1%.

Most MFR Resistors have a Temperature Coefficient of 100 ppm/°C.  Read more at ­ Resistance - Ask The Applications Engineer. 100ppm is like 0.01%.

0.01% is close to the resolution of a 4-1/2 Digit Voltmeter. 100.00 is the reading you will see for 100 Volts. Imagine the front end attenuator in that voltmeter is Standard MFR and a "Hot" Voltage Regulator is leaning on it, (you wanted to make your pcb compact)  The last digit will be Spinning like a Ferris Wheel. Are we understanding Instrumentation!

Read - Accuracy, precision & resolution

Parts Per Million - PPM

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Ohms Law - Amps Volts Watts Relation

The most important Electrical Law is the Ohms Law, a proper understanding of which can help you make many designs. Troubleshooting Home Appliances or understanding Household Wiring is easy if you master this.

Ohms Law

Volts is analogous to the pressure of a water in an Overhead Tank. The water head or height is like Voltage. The Pipe diameter and bends are like wire and its resistance, a water tap like a wirewound potentiometer. The rate of water flowing from the tap is like the flow of electric current in a wire.

Ohm's Law - Watlow Electric The one i used to use, This would be in the back of the handbook.

The water drops are similar to units of charge, the quantity of water filled in a bucket is like the amount of charge stored in a small capacitor. The Underground Sump can be compared to a Big capacitor. The evaporation of water is like leakage of charge thru the dielectric in a cap. If you use the running water to power a home made paddle wheel turbine; This is like simulating an electric motor or heater in a water circuit, the rotary power got, can be analogous to the heater's watts..

Ohms Law - Amps Volts Watts Relation

By Dmvstar (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Contents

Basic Electronics
Basics of Electronics
Product Production
Work Discipline
Testing Points
Learning Electronics
Electronics Theory

Production Notes
Prototype Fabrication
Electrical Circuits
Electromechanical


Library
Scots Guide Electronics
Engineering - Wikibooks
Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
DC Circuits UOG
Socratic Electronics
Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


Product Design
Product Development
Constant Current Source
Good Voltage Regulators
Insulation Resistance
Digital Insulation Tester
DN Schematic PCB 04
DN Product Design 07


Hobby Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
LED brightness control
555 Incredible Chip
Process Control
liquid level measurement
Thermocouples and RTD
Design ADC Interface uC
Thermocouple Amplifier
IA Instrumentation 02
Temperature on DMM
Optical Proximity Switch
Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


Test Measurement
Instrumentation Automation
NI Test and Measurement
DMM Digital Multi Meter
Oscilloscope in T&M
IA Automation 01
Build Instruments
Tektronix T&M Equipment
Educators Corner – Agilent


Power Electronics
UPS Background
Transformer Connections
DN Power Electronics 03
DN Power Electronics 02
Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


Embedded
Interfacing Microcontrollers
Embedded Process Control
80C31 8052 Microcontroller
Microprocessors and uC
Embedded Systems Design

Components
Good Voltage Regulators
Relays and Contactors
Potentiometers Trimpots
Prototype Boards Types
Types of Capacitors
Types of Switches
Resistors How they Work
Coils Transformers SMPS
Mains Transformers Types
DN Components Selection 05

Tutor Gadgets
Count-Up Timer
Digital Logic Gates
Electronics Tutors

History
Teaching Instruments
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Muntzing a Circuit Design
Teralab Electronics projects
Historical Instruments


Tables, Charts, Videos
Binary and Hex
Resistor Color Code
Ohms Law
Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
High Resistance Materials

Analog
School - Analog Design
DN Analog Basics 06
DN Op-Amps 01
TI Semiconductors