Showing posts with label Electrical. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Electrical. Show all posts

Monday, March 06, 2017

Good Earthing Prevents Shocks

Good Earthing or Grounding is needed for Human Safety it also Prolongs Appliance Life. Earthing in the olden days was done like this, i have just mixed what i have heard with my common sense and this is what it may be.

Do it professionally, do it with the help of qualified Electrical Engineers. Do not cut costs here.

Make a deep pit, 4 feet deep, 1/2 feet dia, put long copper rods ( GI pipes or lead pipes were also used). Let the copper rods be driven deeper than the four feet that has been dug. mesh the rods with copper mesh or wire (GI chicken mesh). Fill the pit with all the conductive things which are bio-degradable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and non-soluble. They used coal, charcoal, salt, scrap metals. (now they have a polymer conductive gel). Terminate the copper rods to a thick copper wire run it to your mains box in a way it cannot be cut or broken when gardening etc.

Good Earthing Prevents Shocks

The mains box should be fitted with HRC fuses and MCBs as required, use a ELCB too. The MCB trips when a over current load is drawn, there are both thermal (thermostat technology) and electromagnetic (relay technology) MCBs. The ELCB does not have a earth wire, it trips when the current in the live and neutral paths are unequal. When the difference is say 20mA it trips. This 20mA would have gone thru the ground wire or thru a person giving shock. Also use Over Voltage and Under Voltage Trips if possible, Many equipment fail due to this.
  • HRC -- High Rupture Capacity.
  • MCB -- Miniature Circuit Breaker.
  • ELCB -- Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker.
  • GI -- Galvanized Iron
Also do not forget a lightning rod on the top of the house, whose path to ground is far from the earth pit. Lightning also zaps phones etc. Use Zener barriers for all interfaces between equipment and isolation transformers.

Earthing system

Cable TV wires, phone wires, and mains wires all may get mixed up. During rainy days even a phone line or TV cable may give shock or blow input circuits in equipment. This may be due to mains leakage or lightning.

Before you touch any metal object, cross your fingers, better still buy a long neon tester.

delabs Technologies - EE Notes

    Sunday, January 01, 2017

    Museum Of Electricity - Charles Brush

    Yes, there were electric lights powered by central stations before Edison's! Carbon arc lamps saw extensive use throughout the USA and the world from the late 1870s on. - Charles Brush

    Museum Of Electricity - Charles Brush

    The General Electric Company was formed in 1892. It was the result of a meger between the Edison General electric Company and the Thomson-Houston Company, which themselves incorporated several other companies.

    Museum Of Electricity - Charles Brush

    Electricity, technology, and lots of arcs and sparks!

    Museum Of Electricity contains Vintage Electrical and Historical images and description. They include the Edison Lamp, Tesla Coils, Lightning and Atmospheric Electricity and the .....

    Amazing Jacob's Ladder

    So how do they work?  First two conductive metal rods are positioned in a rough “V” shape with a slight space between them at the base.  A sufficient voltage differential is provided from a high voltage transformer to breakdown the air in the gap between the rods.

    Thursday, April 07, 2016

    High Voltage Experimenters Handbook

    "This page serves as a repository for all the bits and pieces I am collecting towards creating a modern version of the classic 1954 work by Craggs and Meek: High Voltage Laboratory Technique." - Jim

    High Voltage Experimenter's Handbook

    delabs Notes -

    First note a important point, HV is dangerous and the behavior of HV is shockingly unpredictable.

    Jim shown caged by Faraday but protected by the law of Gauss. Two medium sized Tesla coils from Brian Basura and Ross Overton were used .

    High Voltage Experimenters Handbook

    Humidity, clothing, footwear, gloves and furniture all add to the safety factors. Not to mention the special insulators and probes in plastic and ceramic that guards your body from a fatal mishap.

    First you should be very capable in using normal electrical equipment with proper prior training. Then you should have experience in Mains power and energy systems. Lastly you should be above 20 Yrs of age and Learn HV theory and Practice under a Very experienced professional in that Specialization. Jim Lux has created some valuable pages on HV.

    High Voltage Experimenter's Handbook

    There is no harm whatsoever now in studying and mastering the theory and also teaching others about the energy that is in high voltage. HV in HF is even more funny.

    More EE Stuff at Jim Lux's Web site

    All that can be invented is already invented by nature. Man can only uncover a few facts and write about it. Start with this handbook. Life is precious, take care.

    Thursday, March 12, 2015

    Charles Proteus Steinmetz

    He was an American Mathematician and Electrical Engineer. He fostered the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineers.

    Charles Proteus Steinmetz
     (April 9, 1865 - October 26, 1923)

    Charles Proteus Steinmetz

    He made ground-breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enabled engineers to better design electric motors for use in industry.

    Charles Proteus Steinmetz electrical engineer

    Hysteresis - Charles Proteus Steinmetz

    "Eickemeyer wanted to expand into electrical motors and generators, a brand new field in 1889."

    AC hysteresis theory

    Shortly after arriving in the U.S., Steinmetz went to work for Rudolf Eickemeyer in Yonkers, New York, and published in the field of magnetic hysteresis, which gave him world-wide professional recognition.

    Eickemeyer's firm developed transformers for use in the transmission of electrical power among many other mechanical and electrical devices. In 1893 Eickemeyer's company, along with all of its patents and designs, was bought by the newly formed General Electric Company, where he quickly became known as the engineering wizard in GE's engineering community.

    My Notes-

    I read about  Steinmetz long ago in a Reader Digest that belonged to my grandfather. It was dated like 1950-60. These issues have become brown and have  been ruled by silverfishes.

    I cannot find that article but i remember it roughly ......

    People from/related to GE had problems with thier electrical equipment heating up a lot. Then they heard of this person of Germany who had mentioned about some remedy to such issues.

    They visited him in his loft or some upstairs room where the solution to this problem was discussed and the rest is remarkable history for Electrical Engineering. 

    The part of the story i remember most was that in one of his wardrobe drawers, a Mama Mouse had made it her home and was also having her kids here. Not only did the compassionate Steinmetz allowed it to keep her quarters, he even attended to the new family with some food and necessities.

    Heard of very few angels like this.

    delabs Technologies
    2013 Updated

    Wednesday, April 16, 2014

    Electrical Safety and Clean Energy Systems

    This is an educative and important guide for Electrical Equipment Safety. This can be also applied partially to Power Electronics and Home Energy Systems. Electronic Equipment also have to be maintained by Calibrating them and protecting them from environmental parameters like dust, grime, direct sunlight, moisture, humidity, sea wind (brine), corrosive fumes and chemicals. They should not be even placed near machines like a big lathe, sub-sonic or low frequency vibrations.

    Electrical Safety 1

    Electrical Safety Testing Reference Guide

    Electrical Safety is a Serious Issue Electrical Safety in the workplace is the most important job of an electrical worker. No matter how much training one has received or how much employers try to safeguard their workers, Electrical Safety is ultimately the responsibility of the electrical worker.

    Electrical Safety 2

    Electrical Safety Hazards Handbook

    Power Studies, Arc-Flash Hazard Labeling, Data Gathering and Inspection, Engineering Services.

    The steps to osha electrical safety

    Electrical Design, Lighting and most important Earthing or Grounding. Good Reference Articles and Product Reviews.

    Electrical Construction and Maintenancee Power Quality, National Electric Code, Construction, V/D/V, Ops, Equipment Rental Industry Resourc

    Earthing or Grounding is something Audio Enthusiasts make a lot of fuss about. The Articles here about Balanced Power, Symmetrical Power Systems and Earthing throw light on ways to counter Audio Noise.

    AC Power has the 50/60 Hz noise, now more AC noise can be picked up by poorly designed systems when so many gadgets around. These articles are also relevant for the instrumentation engineer. Dissonance is encountered when you build sensitive strain gauge based measurements or while measuring and transmitting micro-volts from a remote sensor to the dashboard/control panel.

    Index of Technical Articles About Balanced Power

    International leader in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and power quality (PQ). EMC Filters, RFI Suppression Chokes, Feedthrough Components.

    Schaffner - electromagnetic compatibility

    Schaffner - EMC/EMI components, harmonic filters & magnetic components.

    Monday, June 17, 2013

    Technical Resource - Marc Dekenah

    Useful resource on Power Quality, Radio Telemetry, T&M and Interfacing.

    Technical Resource - Marc Dekenah

    Economical Impulse Generator, Measuring in Excess of 1kV, "Soft Earthing" Instruments and A Real LAN twist cable are pages you must read.

    Marc's Technical Pages; knowledge-base of Faultlink International, an independent electrical / electronics fault investigation & analysis consultancy.

    Marc is an independent electrical/electronic fault investigation and analysis consultant with over 25 years of industrial electrics/electronics experience as Consultant, System Engineer, Technical Director, Design Engineer and more.

    Connecting Up For Intermittent Nuisance Trips

    Connecting Up For Intermittent/Nuisance Trips

    "Intermittent trips are circuit breakers rightfully operating because of an unknown cause or fault. Nuisance trips are a breaker deeming a non-existent fault has occurred and, in so doing, operates without need."

    "Faultlink International is a fully independent broad-range electrical/electronics fault investigation and analysis
    consultancy."

    FaultLink International - Electrical Power Diagnostics

    Saturday, January 31, 2009

    Lightning Bolt damages Components

    A ThunderBolt Zap can damage electronic parts. The Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker ELCB or Overload Breaker may Trip.

    Surge Protection and Lightning Arrestors

    Mains Strip Board should have protection, The EMI RFI filter, Varistors can help. Earthing and Lightning Arrestors should be good in the building.

    The Blue ones are MOV Metal Oxide Varistors, sometimes they fail as a short circuit, so better to use a fast blow fuse. Then you see Gas Tube Arrestors that are even used in a Landline Terminal Box.

    Surge Arrestors

    A Surge Arrester is a device to protect electrical equipment from over-voltage transients caused by external (lightning) or internal (switching) events. Also called a surge protection device (SPD) or transient voltage surge suppressor (TVSS),

    Line-Filter - A special class of capacitor is used in power-line (mains) filters.  Line filtering is a very tough application for a capacitor.

    Achieving EMC for Dc-Dc Convertors - DC-DC converters, whether they be an off the shelf brick design or a discrete equivalent, are a source of EMI (Electromagnetic Interference). EMI is unwanted electromagnetic energy that propagates by radiation and conduction over system signal and power lines.

    SMPS switch mode power supply design, PSpice simulation - These definitions should be considered relevant to a SMPS, and may not apply identically to other technical areas.

    Contents

    Basic Electronics
    Basics of Electronics
    Product Production
    Work Discipline
    Testing Points
    Learning Electronics
    Electronics Theory

    Production Notes
    Prototype Fabrication
    Electrical Circuits
    Electromechanical


    Library
    Scots Guide Electronics
    Engineering - Wikibooks
    Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
    DC Circuits UOG
    Socratic Electronics
    Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


    Product Design
    Product Development
    Constant Current Source
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Insulation Resistance
    Digital Insulation Tester
    DN Schematic PCB 04
    DN Product Design 07


    Hobby Circuits
    VU Meter Circuits
    LED brightness control
    555 Incredible Chip
    Process Control
    liquid level measurement
    Thermocouples and RTD
    Design ADC Interface uC
    Thermocouple Amplifier
    IA Instrumentation 02
    Temperature on DMM
    Optical Proximity Switch
    Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


    Test Measurement
    Instrumentation Automation
    NI Test and Measurement
    DMM Digital Multi Meter
    Oscilloscope in T&M
    IA Automation 01
    Build Instruments
    Tektronix T&M Equipment
    Educators Corner – Agilent


    Power Electronics
    UPS Background
    Transformer Connections
    DN Power Electronics 03
    DN Power Electronics 02
    Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


    Embedded
    Interfacing Microcontrollers
    Embedded Process Control
    80C31 8052 Microcontroller
    Microprocessors and uC
    Embedded Systems Design

    Components
    Good Voltage Regulators
    Relays and Contactors
    Potentiometers Trimpots
    Prototype Boards Types
    Types of Capacitors
    Types of Switches
    Resistors How they Work
    Coils Transformers SMPS
    Mains Transformers Types
    DN Components Selection 05

    Tutor Gadgets
    Count-Up Timer
    Digital Logic Gates
    Electronics Tutors

    History
    Teaching Instruments
    Charles Proteus Steinmetz
    Muntzing a Circuit Design
    Teralab Electronics projects
    Historical Instruments


    Tables, Charts, Videos
    Binary and Hex
    Resistor Color Code
    Ohms Law
    Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
    High Resistance Materials

    Analog
    School - Analog Design
    DN Analog Basics 06
    DN Op-Amps 01
    TI Semiconductors