Showing posts with label Mains-Power-Conditioning. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mains-Power-Conditioning. Show all posts

Friday, October 14, 2016

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Mains Power means the 230 V AC 50 Hz or 110 V AC 60 Hz in some countries, The lower power line like 5A is used for small lamps and fans. The higher power line 15A is used to drive the High Power Electrical Appliances like Heaters and Motors. This is a single phase supply.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Single phase Supply in layman language means a Live, a Neutral and an optional earth. The earthing is a must in every building along with lightning protection. The Neutral is a close to earth potential, The live can give a shock to a man who is in contact with earth at some part of the human body. So great care has to be taken. This live wire or point can be easily checked by a quality standards approved Neon Tester.

Voltmeter and Ammeter

Three phase supply - there are three Live wires, used in factorys and apartments to power bigger loads and Motors. A 3 phase AC motor is very efficient and economical and most machines like Drills and Lathes are powered by AC Motors. 3 phase supply becomes essential for industry.

The voltage is transmitted and supplied to houses at a high level in comparison to low level of batteries. This High Voltage is not safe but Inevitable, as transmitting at lower voltage means greater current carrying requirements of wires and connectors. That leads to more copper or aluminum usage, more wastage of power due to I2R.

Earthing has to be good, use a Earth Leakage Trip Device. If earth wire gets snapped outside and some appliance is leaking, the metal clad appliances may give shock. Even if no appliance is leaking, the current thru y-capacitors of EMI Filters in Electronic Gadgets like computers are enough to make your Neon tester glow.

The Circuits related to Mains Power

Monday, March 21, 2016

Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton

"Earth leakage currents arise mainly from the EMC filters built into electronic equipment with switched mode power supplies. Standards limit the leakage current from non-fixed equipment (i.e. equipment that plugs into a standard socket outlet) to less than 3.5 mA. When a lot of electronic equipment is in use, the total leakage current in the protective conductor can become significant."

Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton
  • Methods of Earthing
  • Earth Conductors
  • Electrical interference
  • Lightning Protection

Earthing Practice and Power Quality

Power Quality and Utilisation Guide

The PQ E-library is a collection of electronic technical reference documents covering introduction, costs, harmonics, resilience, voltage disturbances, earthing, energy efficiency and renewables/distributed generation. See also - Power Quality

Copper Development Association
  • Educational Resources
  • Computers cannot work without copper
  • Electricity in buildings
Copper Development Association Website for information on Copper and Copper Alloys

Copper Development Association - Resource Library

Copper Development Association provides a range of resources in support of the correct and efficient use of copper and copper alloys for major applications.

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Facts of EMI and RFI from the Inside

Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio-frequency interference or RFI when in radio frequency) is disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.
Electromagnetic interference Wiki

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna
170 – 1100 MHz with omni directional H-plane pattern

Who would know better about Radio Frequency Interference and ElectroMagnetic Interference more than the Hams or Amateur Radio Community.

If they have to communicate effectively using limited resources, they have to deal with EMI/RFI effectively, While they build their equipment or combat Noise from other Machines and Installations nearby.

This problem needs more practical involvement and experimentation to learn, compared to learning something like Digital Electronics.

Equipment and Electricals like SMPS, AC/DC Drives, Motors, Solenoids and CFL Lamps are to be built/reinforced for low EMI/RFI emission/radiation.

Sensitive Medical Equipment like ECG or even a Aircraft can be seriously affected by Noise.

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

Thursday, August 04, 2011

Energy and Power Measurements

To make an analog design using log amps or multipliers, discovercircuits - four-quad is good for learning. Using a uP for math is better. Look at these links below. Build a Power Meter ! The Metrics for Going Green is with a Energy/Power/Watt meter.

enerjar - diy power meter

Related Reading

Monday, June 02, 2008

EMI RFI Mains Power Filters

EMI RFI Noise Filters are required in two situations, to prevent EMI from an Electronic Equipment Like A Dimmer, Thyristor Drive, SMPS or Switcher affecting other Modules in a System or Neighboring Equipment.

The Second Situation is when a Sensitive Equipment Like a Medical Apparatus or Precision Measuring Instrument has to be Immune to any Noise from outside, as it can affect performance.

Sometimes it is Accuracy that can get affected, but some electrical jolts can damage or desensitize fine sensors or positioning systems.

EMI RFI Mains Power Filters

Filters are is connected in series with an Existing Mains Chord. It can also be Fixed in a Control Panel with a Clamp. The two X caps have higher Capacitance Value. The Y cap is Lower Value and withstands around 1kV,  It is better if X cap is AC 440V.

The common mode filter design in such a way that it cancels the noise. The correct winding polarity or direction is important for noise cancellation.

Related Resources

eEngineer - Electrical Engineering, EMI/EMC, RFI -  Introduction to EMI, EMC, RFI, Military EMC Standards, Radio Frequency Interference.

EMI Shielding RF Shielding - Tech-Etch designs and manufactures both standard catalog and customized shielding products.

Dealing with Computer generated RFI/EMI - Most of the time, the RFI generated is enough to render certain bands useless and on other bands, it may drown out any weak signals and distort or interfere with signals that you want.

TDK - Electronic Components & Materials - Electronic devices generate electromagnetic interferences, which can affect the proper functioning of electronic devices and systems

Here is one type i encountered in many T&M Instruments along with TDK too. It was Schaffner - electromagnetic compatibility - International leader in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and power quality (PQ). EMC Filters, RFI Suppression Chokes, Feedthrough Components.


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