delabs Circuits

Showing posts with label PCB-Schematic. Show all posts
Showing posts with label PCB-Schematic. Show all posts

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Optical Retro-Reflective Proximity Switch

This circuit is used to detect objects by reflected infrared light. It can be built into a cylindrical enclosure just like an inductive proximity switch.
This is also useful as a level detector for colored liquids like oil. This has some immunity to ambient sunlight as it detects ac pulses.

Optical Retro-Reflective Proximity Switch
This is a Hand Crafted PCB Artwork done by a PCB Vendor years back, this method may be used even today.

Optical Proximity Switch - PCB

PCB Design -
This Layout may have many jumpers and may need to be cleared of Hairline shorts which has happened after i scanned it, cleaned it and enhanced it using image manipulation software.

This PCB would go into a 30mm Nickel Plated Brass threaded tube, with Epoxy or Teflon ends. These were turned components as quantities made were small. An Optical Proximity Sensor that would fit the same place as the eddy current or Inductive sensors, in existing machines. It could work a longer distance and could detect Non-Metals and even translucent fluids.

Wednesday, February 04, 2015

Types of Prototype Boards for Breadboard Testing

Tag Board or Terminal Strips were the first General Purpose Boards for Electronic Prototyping. This was also the way some modules in Valve Radios and Early Televisions were manufactured. The Turret Board that still remains in use can be seen as an example of  Point to Point Wiring.

Turret Board

These are useful to place Heating Parts, High Voltage or High Energy Circuits and Sometimes RF Assemblies too.

BreadBoard - Is also a word to indicate the Prototyping Work or Act.

This is a reusable gadget like a connector, works like an IC base, only that the connectors in this are very long lasting. 

You can just plug in the components and connect using thick pre-tinned single strand wire. Big pins can ruin the sockets and powercircuits. Levels > 200mA or > 24V could be avoided on these boards.

Types of Prototype Boards for Breadboard Testing

General Purpose PCB - Perfboard, Stripboard, Veroboard.

This is a PCB  known as  "General Purpose Prototyping Board".  They have to be soldered and some tracks cut with tool-knife. Power circuits also can be built with wire reinforcements and RF circuits too if you plan the layout first on paper. The one with the "Breadboard" layout with a Power bus is most popular. Some for IC circuits are also available,

Wire Wrapping

This is way Custom Equipment, Systems and Advanced Boards are made. When a customer orders a system, just one of a kind. This can be used to prototype and even manufacture a couple of systems.

Extended Eurocard Intergrated Circuit development card

When you are creating a 19" Eurocard Rackmount Solution, say a big Data Acquisition System or a ATE an Automatic Test Equipment. You could use these type of cards.

Eurocard and Plugin Board from Vero

Integrated Circuit Development Plug In Board

Plug-in Veroboard - This board combines the unique Veroboard pattern with the 37 way 2,54mm pitch direct edge connector. Intended primarily for hard wiring of discrete components it is equally useful where a number of common bus or signal lines are required.

Saturday, January 17, 2009

Design Notes - Schematic and PCB - 04

PCB Thermal Design Care for Analog Circuit Stability

If you have a hot power chip near a DC analog circuit, the values will drift, take time to stabilize, this happens even if you use 1% MFR 100ppm. The impact is more if the heatsink is not used and vents and coolers are absent, So in a PCB keep distance between heating power circuits and sensitive analog circuits, some times PCB tracks will carry heat to the Analog area, Hence keep sensitive analog circuits as plugin modules.

When you make a PCB try to orient all ICs in one direction, so also all diode and cap polarities, then it is easy to populate the parts, easy to verify and troubleshoot for production and testing.

High Frequency and RF Design of PCB

  • Sharp bends in PCB tracks or wires will radiate away the RF energy, so do not have hairpin bends.
  • RF or near RF multilayer PCB have 2 layers as ground plane and tracks in the layer in between, Faraday cage.
  • Practical RF PCB Design - IETTraining Event - "How to Design RF Circuits"

Schematic Design Basics

  • When we draw circuits we have to keep in mind the readability, the circuit should be laid out, according to the signal flow, the input output ports shown in the periphery of circuit.
  • Drawing a neat circuit diagram will ensure a better design, lesser parts means greater reliability, simple solutions.
  • How To Draw Schematic Diagrams

Product Design Mockup and Prototypes

  • Make a 3D mockup of the final product, both the box and the PCB with components before PCB done.
  • The product with the PCbs, transformer and other panel components should fit in the box it was intended for, or the cabinet that was designed for the Product. To make sure make a Mock-up Product - 3D and display. Even if you have all documents and drawings in place.
  • Make sure of IC pin numbers, size and packages and indicate in circuit like 40 pin dip before going to PCB. Also check every EDA symbol in your software with the company datasheet to make double sure.
  • Do not mix mechanical and electrical connections, these leads to failures and frequent need of repairs and service.
  • When using a double or multi layer pcb make one layer a ground plane, all decoupling caps ground linked to it.
  • Reinforce copper tracks on PCB with a copper wire when it needs to carry more current, tinning may improve a bit.

Contents

Basic Electronics
Basics of Electronics
Product Production
Work Discipline
Testing Points
Learning Electronics
Electronics Theory

Production Notes
Prototype Fabrication
Electrical Circuits
Electromechanical


Library
Scots Guide Electronics
Engineering - Wikibooks
Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
DC Circuits UOG
Socratic Electronics
Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


Product Design
Product Development
Constant Current Source
Good Voltage Regulators
Insulation Resistance
Digital Insulation Tester
DN Schematic PCB 04
DN Product Design 07


Hobby Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
LED brightness control
555 Incredible Chip
Process Control
liquid level measurement
Thermocouples and RTD
Design ADC Interface uC
Thermocouple Amplifier
IA Instrumentation 02
Temperature on DMM
Optical Proximity Switch
Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


Test Measurement
Instrumentation Automation
NI Test and Measurement
DMM Digital Multi Meter
Oscilloscope in T&M
IA Automation 01
Build Instruments
Tektronix T&M Equipment
Educators Corner – Agilent


Power Electronics
UPS Background
Transformer Connections
DN Power Electronics 03
DN Power Electronics 02
Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


Embedded
Interfacing Microcontrollers
Embedded Process Control
80C31 8052 Microcontroller
Microprocessors and uC
Embedded Systems Design

Components
Good Voltage Regulators
Relays and Contactors
Potentiometers Trimpots
Prototype Boards Types
Types of Capacitors
Types of Switches
Resistors How they Work
Coils Transformers SMPS
Mains Transformers Types
DN Components Selection 05

Tutor Gadgets
Count-Up Timer
Digital Logic Gates
Electronics Tutors

History
Teaching Instruments
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Muntzing a Circuit Design
Teralab Electronics projects
Historical Instruments


Tables, Charts, Videos
Binary and Hex
Resistor Color Code
Ohms Law
Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
High Resistance Materials

Analog
School - Analog Design
DN Analog Basics 06
DN Op-Amps 01
TI Semiconductors