Showing posts with label embedded. Show all posts
Showing posts with label embedded. Show all posts

Friday, March 03, 2017

Phoenix Science Experiments

Phoenix allows you to develop science experiments  by connecting  sensor / control elements to a computer and access them through software.

Phoenix Science Experiments

Phoenix depends heavily on Python language. The data acquisition, analysis and writing simulation programs to teach science and computation.

Different sensors elements can be interfaced and accessed by few lines of Pythoncode. Phoenix utilizes the power of personal computers for experiment control, data acquisition and its mathematical analysis.

Phoenix Science Experiments

PMDK is an easy-to-use, low cost micro-controller development system. The hardware consists of an ATmega16MCU, LCD display and regulated DC supply. All the I/O pins of the MCU are available on sockets.

The instrument is designed using locally available low cost components and the design is freely available for commercial production. Design supports hardware plug-in modules for expansion. Phoenix is developed using Free Software tools.

The serial and USB versions can be easily interfaced to a PC. They can also be programmed through the serial/USB ports after uploading a bootloader program to ATmega16.

Thursday, August 04, 2016

Labcenter Electronics - Proteus Design Suite

The Proteus Design Suite is wholly unique in offering the ability to co-simulate both high and low-level micro-controller code in the context of a mixed-mode SPICE circuit simulation. With this Virtual System Modelling facility, you can transform your product design cycle, reaping huge rewards in terms of reduced time to market and lower costs of development.

Labcenter Electronics - Proteus Design Suite

Co-simulation of microprocessor software within a mixed mode SPICE simulator.
  • Available for PIC, 8051, AVR, HC11, ARM7/LPC2000 and Basic Stamp processors
  • See your code interact with simulated hardware in real-time.
  • Interactive peripheral models for displays, keypads, etc.
  • Over 8000 analogue and digital device models.
  • Extensive single step and debugging facilities including system wide diagnostics.
  • Works with popular compilers and assemblers.

Labcenter Electronics - Proteus Design Suite

Proteus Virtual System Modelling (VSM) combines mixed mode SPICE circuit simulation, animated components and microprocessor models to facilitate co-simulation of complete microcontroller based designs. For the first time ever, it is possible to develop and test such designs before a physical prototype is constructed.

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Genie - Educational Microcontroller System

Low-cost microcontroller programming system for Education. Easy-to-use flowchart software, add intelligence and control to your designs. USB or Serial Cable for Programming.
Some Features
  • Run multiple programs at the same time.
  • Run & Test programs live.
  • Unique Plug & Play USB Cable.
  • Compatible with Picaxe circuits & PIC Logicator.
  • Supports advanced I/O such as events, interrupts and infrared.
  • On-screen monitoring and calibration of digital and analogue signals
Genie E18 Activity Kit - PCB118

Experiment with the GENIE E18 microcontroller. 2 digital input switches, 3 analogue inputs and 8 outputs (1 medium power output, 1 piezo sounder output and 6 LED outputs).

Genie - Educational Microcontroller System

From - Circuit Wizard - New Wave Concepts Limited.

Revolutionary new system that combines circuit design, PCB design, simulation and CAD/CAM manufacture in one complete package.

(Feedback - The Genie site is on Flash, it would be better if Buttons are provided in place of Menus. This will make it easy for all Kids  )

Wednesday, January 21, 2009

Digital and Embedded Systems Design

An Embedded Microcontroller or DSP system is made of Chips, Circuits and Firmware. The digital voltage levels, speed, bus width, fan out, power consumption are some factors that a designer has to keep in mind. As portable and wireless gadgets are becoming more popular, RF, Ethernet and Energy Efficient Design aspects should be studied. Power electronics and Analog Circuits knowledge is used around the system, all this is integrated to make an instrument, equipment or gadget.

Digital and Embedded Systems Design
  • 80C51 ports can sink more current but source very less, hence use a 10k pull up at all the ports or outputs.
  • Firmware must be developed in increments, tested in increments, backed up in increments, must be modular (include) reuse.
  • Tristate output, High Impedance and Floating all mean the same when it comes to IC Inputs-Outputs. It means the pin is insulated from rest of circuit in the IC. That means it will not influence the node or bus it is connected to. A DMM terminals are floating means that the hand held plastic DMM has no electrical conductive link to earth or ground.
  • You can use hyper terminal to upload code to single board computers 80C51 like in BINARY or ASCII. 
  • ASICs are for large volume production, or for products which have a long product life cycle.
  • Low volume production use FPGA or CPLD, or even flash based microcontrollers, so that all your inventory can be reused and recycled.
  • Cell phones or a LAN card ASIC is ideal as volumes are good in cell phones and for LAN cards the technology is matured. For either FPGA or ASIC's you get IP Modules or Code Libraries for many functions and applications.
  • Whatever the method keep design flexible and modular for reuse and to save cost. remember the hardware is difficult to alter, software can be altered even at customer site, flash has made this possible
  • In the future chips may be both analog and digital programmable with flash.
  • Some FPGA, CPLD, ASIC links, WinCUPL, Design and Reuse, fpga4fun.
  • Unused CMOS inputs should have a pull up or pull down resistor, it should not float, or it oscillates.
  • Have a decoupling capacitor 104 that is 0.1uF or 100nF across the supply of every IC very near the IC supply pins.
  • A watchdog timer should be used in every microcomputer circuit like 8051 so that the system resets on hanging.
  • The reset on a microcomputer should be applied till the supply to it is stabilized, this will enable a clean start.
  • Analog ground (opamps), digital ground (CMOS) and power ground (relays and LED) should be separate, (linked at root)
  • Pull up or pull down resistors in TTL can be 10K and in CMOS 100K and in battery operated systems 1M.
  • CMOS gates and Opamps have a output drive capability of ~ 10-20mA, so when you drive a load say an LED use a series resistor to limit the current to 5mA to 10mA.
  • When the number of digital chips you use in a project goes above 20 or 30 then it is better to use PLD or CPLD types from Altera, Xilinx or Lattice etc.
  • Try to use same family ICs in a circuit, like only LS or only HCT, if you mix up then you have to do a design review.
  • In a industrial environment many motors, DC drives and AC drives will be running, this will produce EMI, RFI, kickback spikes which cause microcontroller based equipment to hang. Use a watchdog timer for uC.
  • More EMI immunity by using opto couplers for all input and outputs, 4-20mA current signals for input and output and an isolated wide range SMPS.

Monday, January 21, 2008

Interfacing Microcontrollers

At Beyond Logic and Embedded Processor Control you will find interesting information on interfacing.

Real World variables are analog values, like the temperature of the Human Body. There may be Yes-No or digital events too, like the Water Level of a Tank or Door Close-Open. The former is measured by a Thermocouple and the Latter with a Proximity Switch.

These values from the sensors have to be Quickly converted to a digital form and fed to the the uC by an interrupt or cyclic polling of ports. The "How Quickly" determines How "Real Time" you system response is.

An analog value in instrumentation has to be at least 12 bit wide resolution, which is like 3-1/2, and the
The ICL7135 4-1/2 gives +/- 20,000 counts at full scale, nearly 14bit wide data. This can be interfaced both in serial and parallel data links. The serial method is used when optical isolation is required from the sensor to control circuits. If the sensor is measuring the temperature of a Transformer, an optical isolation is absolutely required.

Anantha Narayan 06:48 20-Apr-07

Embedded Process Control

Microcontrollers are versatile for process control instrumentation, The Instruments need to be small and power efficient, they have to be immune to electrically noisy environments.

When such a instrument is mounted closed to big machines, it has to be resistant to vibration failure due to harmonics. When it is used in ships or chemical industries, they need to be corrosion resistant. This makes Industrial Instruments a challenge to design, as the reliability is next only to Medical and Military instrumentation.

In applications like data loggers, scanners and PID Controllers Microcontrollers are inevitable. The analog and digital counterparts that were built years back were difficult to maintain and very big in size. With a uC a 48*48 1/16 - DIN PID Box is possible, as shown here Newport Autotune PID.

Modular Automation like PLC uses many uCs. There are Multiplexers, Analog and digital modules controlled by uC. Modern Computer based SCADA have wireless interfaces and transmitters using uC based intelligent circuits.

Anantha Narayan 06:48 20-Apr-07

Friday, January 18, 2008

80C31 and 8052 Microcontroller

8052 Microcontroller :

8048 and MCS-48 made designing with Microprocessors easy with built in I/O ports, RAM and Timer. The I/O ports for the 8085 was an external 8255. 8749 enabled users to burn and test firmware on an integrated UV Eprom.

80C51-52 which came out as the fully evolved uC had built in Serial Ports UART and more Math, better Timer-Counter and Interrupt Handling. The 'C' is for CMOS that made handheld instruments possible due to low battery usage and lesser support chips.

The Assembly Code MCS-51 set is used to program the chip. There is a 8052 Basic that can understand the Basic Language, useful for people who are not comfortable with mnemonics.

Now we have 8051 chips with EE Flash and some have a watchdog and I2C too.

Anantha Narayan 06:48 20-Apr-07

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

Analog devices like transistors and diodes lead to opamps and analog computing. This takes more parts but with fast devices can be real time. Then came Logic and Digital Circuits, here also big systems will take too many parts. A very Old hp Logic Analyzer instrument, could be HP1600A, had more than five large PCBs, Toggle Switches and numerous 74Fxx TTL Chips. I tried to revive it, it could not be fully restored.

Then came the solution the Microprocessor.  Here the entire system goes into the firmware and a Hardware. Tool Set in the Microprocessor made up of Logic and Math, sequentially used to perform the same operation that would require innumerable Gates in a plain hardware digital circuit. But as it performs the operations one after another, it takes time, hence the speed is defined by the CPU Clock Speed and Bus width.

When the External RAM and EPROM and other peripheral devices moved into the main package, MicroController were born. When more external devices merged with the MicroController. It formed a nearly complete computer, this is known as the SOC.
Anantha Narayan 06:48 20-Apr-07


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