Thursday, July 26, 2018

Learning Science to Promote Scientific Thinking

Here are some resources of Science, i found useful. Latest news on science, technology, hard science subjects of physics, space and earth science, electronics, nanotechnology and technology in general.

Museums are virtual Universities. 3D Scaled Interactive Scientific and Engineering Demonstrations in Tech Museums Inspire, Educate and Train many students on Science and Technology Subjects.

Learning Science to Promote Scientific Thinking

Such Live Interactive Demonstrations may be very useful for Maths and Economics as well. These are Subtle and Complex Sciences which need Gross Manifests or Exhibits to help youngsters grasp Ideas and Concepts easily.

PhysOrg - science and tech news
Publishing around 100 articles every business day, PhysOrg offers the most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. PhysOrg exclusive feature stories are original and not found elsewhere on the web.

Multimedia Physics - SchulPhysik
Physics and Physlets. Astronomy - planet, space weather, cosmos. Mathematics - algebra to statistics. Optics and electrical. Geophysics, Energy, Galileo.

Mike's Electric Stuff is an Online Electrical Vintage Tour, back in time.

Flinn Scientific - Science Activities - Sells educational science supplies. Site has especially useful information on lab safety and lab design.  Physical Science Activities - Exciting experiments which illustrate important scientific concepts and are exciting for both you and your students

National Science Digital Library - NSDL was established by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2000 as an online library which directs users to exemplary resources for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and research.

Wednesday, July 18, 2018

Electrochemistry Encyclopedia

This site contains popular-science style articles describing many aspects of electrochemistry. New articles are added at irregular intervals, and all articles are periodically updated as recent developments occur in the field.

Electrochemistry Encyclopedia
  • Anodizing - Robert S Alwitt
  • Brine electrolysis - Tilak V. Bommaraju and Paul J. Orosz
  • Corrosion inhibition - Norman Hackerman
  • Dielectrics - William D. Brown, Dennis Hess, Vimal Desai, and M. Jamal Deen
  • Electric fish, electric organ discharges, and electroreception - Theodore H. Bullock
  • Electrochemical engineering - Richard C. Alkire and Thomas W. Chapman
  • Electrochemical machining - Joseph McGeough
Electrolytic Capacitors - Electrolytic capacitors are capacitors in which one or both of the "plates" is a non-metallic conductive substance, an electrolyte.

Electrolytic Capacitors

Extractive metallurgy

"Metal sulfide flotation concentrates can be treated in a number of ways. These include using pyrometallurgy, or smelting at high temperature, in which process the sulfur in the metal sulfide is oxidized with air or oxygen to sulfur dioxide, and molten metal is produced."

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice ver

Materials-Science of which Chemical/Electrochemical Engineering is a part; is behind all the development of electronic components and manufacturing. The Backbone is Applied Science. A Super Capacitor or a Special RF Semiconductor can only be developed using the research and efforts of these scientists.

The Sciences or their study has been much nurtured and supported by some countries like the USA. This is the foundation on which many other Technologies like Electronics and Computing thrive. In many other countries this is many times not even perceived as its is not 'glamorous' and requires much efforts and dedication.

"If the Foundation of Applied Sciences is sound, the Building of Technology is Sturdy"

As said by - Elektrick Power Jedi - Charge Minds with Electricity - delabs Notes

Friday, July 13, 2018

Production Notes - Electromechanical - 01

Production, especially prototype testing and Pilot Production exposes lot of engineering and serviceability issues. When you mass produce, it is more streamlined, yet the scope for improvement never ends. The process should always be open to feedback and improvements. - delabs

Practical Electronics at Wikibooks - Nice page to learn basics before you study my points down below.

Practical Electronics at Wikibooks
Other essentials include a small pair of needle-nose pliers, side-cutting pliers, stainless steel or nickel-plated tweezers, wire strippers, a hobby knife with replaceable blades (e.g., X-Acto), and an analogue or digital multimeter with test leads.
delabs Experience - Points to Note
  • The tracks or components on a PCB should not be near the mounting holes, the tracks may form electrical connections with the cabinet earth if they touch the pillar, washer or nut-bolt.
  • When you tighten the screws-nuts-bolt, limit torque by feeling or with torque limit screwdrivers, or thread will slip or PCB-Cabinet break, or CRT-Glass-Plastic will crack-shatter.
  • After assembly and testing is over on a board, do not drill-file it, it should have been done before. Else components crack or tracks break or small metal pieces will form shorts.
  • The Mechanical and electro-mechanical must be streamlined before production, for example when fitting the board the screwdriver may slip and break a zener. The product should be engineered in such a way that it fits easily and the testing and quality checks need not be repeated.
  • Some mechanical failures may not be visible but may show up as a field failure after even 3 months. this will make you lose further orders and ruin the reputation. Hence engineering is vital.
  • Alumina-Aluminum oxide powder mixed in epoxy resin (araldite) can make thermally conductive insulating filler, heatsinks. The Alumina must be free of moisture and very dry.
  • When you drive nails into walls ensure that that part of the wall is free of mains, telephone or any wiring.
  • Some pcbs can have hairline cuts or hairline shorts which will make troubleshooting difficult.
  • Never put or remove ICs, cards or plug-in modules when the power to that system is on, power off system wait for some time for caps to discharge, then insert ICs or cards, applies to PCs too, USB and Firewire ports are exceptions as they are hotplug, anyway even in this, take a bit of care.
  • Use RTV (room temperature vulcanizing) silicone rubber compound or Varnish on PCB-devices to avoid corrosion-dust. more so in industrial environment, ships and chemical industries.
  • Whenever you use nuts and bolts to fasten a PCB or parts to a cabinet use a spring washer, double nut or adhesive to prevent slip. When a loose nut falls on the pcb or transformer sparks will fly.
  • Do not mix mechanical and electrical connections, these leads to failures and frequent need of repairs and service.
Tutorials on Basics and Instrumentation - Theory must be studied once and referred to, again and again as you do practicals. One is by building DIY projects and then modifying them. Also Repair of equipment, troubleshooting, testing and calibrating.

Monday, June 25, 2018

Facts of EMI and RFI from the Inside

Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio-frequency interference or RFI when in radio frequency) is disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.

Electromagnetic interference Wiki

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna
170 – 1100 MHz with omni directional H-plane pattern

Who would know better about Radio Frequency Interference and ElectroMagnetic Interference more than the Hams or Amateur Radio Community.

If they have to communicate effectively using limited resources, they have to deal with EMI/RFI effectively, While they build their equipment or combat Noise from other Machines and Installations nearby.

This problem needs more practical involvement and experimentation to learn, compared to learning something like Digital Electronics.

Equipment and Electricals like SMPS, AC/DC Drives, Motors, Solenoids and CFL Lamps are to be built/reinforced for low EMI/RFI emission/radiation.

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

Sensitive Medical Equipment like ECG or even a Aircraft can be seriously affected by Noise.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Design Notes - Analog and Opamps - 01

Analog is the first thing in electronics. Valve Radios had Amplifiers and RF sections that were analog. Even the first computing methods are analog. Analog is close to Real Life parameter behavior. 

LM335 and LM336 -

LM335 is a temp sensor, LM335 . use it for temp for CJC. Temperature Sensors - RTDs and Thermocouples in  Temperature Measurement.

LM336-2.5 is an voltage Reference. precision 2.5V shunt regulator diodes, Applied as a precision 2.5V low voltage reference for digital voltmeters, power supplies or in opamp signal conditioning.

Current Loop -

4-20 ma will drive DC drives, motors and steam valves. It is a current loop, for long distance transmission, current loop is not prone to noise and hum, EMI RFI. As it is a small power transmission no loss of data, also many equipments can be in one data loop. A single transmitter with 4-20mA out can drive a strip-chart recorder, motor, controller and SCADA input. all in a series loop. Current loop is like 4-20 mA

Opamp Notes and Types
  • TL062, LF353, TL072, fet input. 1 tera ohm input imp.
  • OP07 higher price, 1 giga ohm. 75uV offset.
  • LF353 pin to pin replacement of TL062-72 and 82.
  • LM358 works on single supply too, low price, inp imp 1 meg.
  • LM324 Quad, works of batteries well.
  • All work best with dual +/- 5 V or more. LM7805 -LM 7905.
Analog Electronics: Basic Circuits of Operational Amplifiers

Examine the operation of the following circuits of operational amplifiers: inverting amplifier, summing amplifier, difference amplifier, differentiator, and integrator.

Remembering Bob Pease

Remembering Bob Pease

Points to Note -
  • Analog ground (opamps), digital ground (CMOS) and power ground (relays and LED) should be separate, (linked at root)
  • Glass epoxy PCB have high insulation resistance, above 10 tera ohms, and are not hygroscopic which means they do not drink water vapor, this makes them very suitable for precision instrumentation and sensitive circuits.
  • When you measure DC levels in 16bit accuracy or more you need resistors which have temp. coeff. of 10ppm, or you may have to put the entire circuit in a stable 45 deg oven. Thermoelectric effects, EMI, RFI, pA Leakage currents, ground loops, contact resistance all can make the readings drift and unusable.
  • High impedance points of circuit like 500 kilo ohm and above can pick up AC noise and DC leakage currents. this will affect the performance of circuit, so for DC you have to put a guard ring of the signal ground around that point in PCB. For RF you have to shield with things related to iron and mu metal, for low signals even a copper shield will do.
  • Percentage and ppm: when percentage becomes like 0.001% it is difficult to manage, so we use ppm-parts per million.5% means 5 parts in 100 parts. 23 ppm means 23 parts per million parts. 0.001% - shift the dp-decimal point four places to right it is 10ppm. 0.01% is 100ppm which is the variation of value of mfr resistors on temperature change.
Learn this at my Industrial Process Control Circuits

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Lightning Bolt damages Components

A ThunderBolt Zap can damage electronic parts. The Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker ELCB or Overload Breaker may Trip.

Surge Protection and Lightning Arrestors

Mains Strip Board should have protection, The EMI RFI filter, Varistors can help. Earthing and Lightning Arrestors should be good in the building.

The Blue ones are MOV Metal Oxide Varistors, sometimes they fail as a short circuit, so better to use a fast blow fuse. Then you see Gas Tube Arrestors that are even used in a Landline Terminal Box.

Surge Arrestors

A Surge Arrester is a device to protect electrical equipment from over-voltage transients caused by external (lightning) or internal (switching) events. Also called a surge protection device (SPD) or transient voltage surge suppressor (TVSS),

Line-Filter - A special class of capacitor is used in power-line (mains) filters.  Line filtering is a very tough application for a capacitor.

Achieving EMC for Dc-Dc Convertors - DC-DC converters, whether they be an off the shelf brick design or a discrete equivalent, are a source of EMI (Electromagnetic Interference). EMI is unwanted electromagnetic energy that propagates by radiation and conduction over system signal and power lines.

SMPS switch mode power supply design, PSpice simulation - These definitions should be considered relevant to a SMPS, and may not apply identically to other technical areas.

Friday, May 11, 2018

Instrumentation and Automation - 01

Here are some Test and measurement notes. These ideas come from practical experience. But the jots are not in any order but are quite important.

DuMont Lab Oscilloscope

Scope Notes
  • If the waveform on the scope droops then you may need to use a 10X attenuating probe or mode. this attenuator is at the tip of the probe hence better measurement possible, also very high frequency signals may be best transmitted over a 50 ohm impedance matched line to the Oscilloscope. 
  • Karl Ferdinand Braun - In 1897 he built the first cathode-ray tube...oscilloscope. CRT technology is to this day used by most television sets and computer monitors. The CRT is still called the "Braun tube".
  • Do not use an oscilloscope to measure 230V directly, use a transformer, differential probe or attenuator.
  • An oscilloscope 1M probe or a DMM 10M impedance can load circuits with nano-pico amps of bias.

DMM Notes
  • Test a NPN transistor, DMM in 200K range. emitter negative probe, collector positive probe, it should show open. while still holding that way press wet finger on base and collector, it may show some reading, then it is ok. for PNP swap probes polarity and do the same thing. the wet finger when pressed applies a base current in uA.
  • The most common reason of DMM failure is when a person tries to measure 230V AC with a DMM in current or ohms mode, with the probes in the wrong sockets. Use external attenuators and shunts.
  • A DMM in diode mode or resistance mode can be used to test IR diodes, take it under 100W lamp and measure, cover the IR diode and measure you will see a response in proper polarity.
  • If you put the DMM in 2V mode and measure the voltage across a ordinary LED near a 40W lamp you will see around 200mV. Turn off 40W lamp the mV will fall near 0. Even metal-can transistors with their top ground away will become photo sensors.
  • When you measure low voltages or high resistance like 1M with a DMM your body must not be in contact with the probe tips. Body resistance is low in comparison so error in reading or loading of mV from sensor, in sensitive and high impedance ranges.
  • Red socket and probe for positive and black socket and probe for negative
  • Is it oscillating ?.... We cannot say, it could also be DC, you need to see if a Clock is present. use a signal tracer or a DMM freq mode, or AC measurement. or build this When you do not have a scope you can build one for the PC.
  • Polarity and Zero Cross indicators tell you to swap the leads. Use a comparator or opamp to build it.


Basic Electronics
Basics of Electronics
Product Production
Work Discipline
Testing Points
Learning Electronics
Electronics Theory

Production Notes
Prototype Fabrication
Electrical Circuits

Scots Guide Electronics
Engineering - Wikibooks
Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
DC Circuits UOG
Socratic Electronics
Blobz Guide Electric Circuits

Product Design
Product Development
Constant Current Source
Good Voltage Regulators
Insulation Resistance
Digital Insulation Tester
DN Schematic PCB 04
DN Product Design 07

Hobby Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
LED brightness control
555 Incredible Chip
Process Control
liquid level measurement
Thermocouples and RTD
Design ADC Interface uC
Thermocouple Amplifier
IA Instrumentation 02
Temperature on DMM
Optical Proximity Switch
Analog Mux - Data Acquisition

Test Measurement
Instrumentation Automation
NI Test and Measurement
DMM Digital Multi Meter
Oscilloscope in T&M
IA Automation 01
Build Instruments
Tektronix T&M Equipment
Educators Corner – Agilent

Power Electronics
UPS Background
Transformer Connections
DN Power Electronics 03
DN Power Electronics 02
Half Bridge Convertor SG3525

Interfacing Microcontrollers
Embedded Process Control
80C31 8052 Microcontroller
Microprocessors and uC
Embedded Systems Design

Good Voltage Regulators
Relays and Contactors
Potentiometers Trimpots
Prototype Boards Types
Types of Capacitors
Types of Switches
Resistors How they Work
Coils Transformers SMPS
Mains Transformers Types
DN Components Selection 05

Tutor Gadgets
Count-Up Timer
Digital Logic Gates
Electronics Tutors

Teaching Instruments
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Muntzing a Circuit Design
Teralab Electronics projects
Historical Instruments

Tables, Charts, Videos
Binary and Hex
Resistor Color Code
Ohms Law
Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
High Resistance Materials

School - Analog Design
DN Analog Basics 06
DN Op-Amps 01
TI Semiconductors

Search This Blog