Solderman Basic Electronics

Basic Electronics, Practical Electronic Projects, Learning Circuit design, Electrical Fundamentals. Edutainment and Interactive Examples.

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Sunday, September 06, 2020

Analog Mux for Data Acquisition Systems

Here is a 4-20 mA In/Out Analog Mux with Cascade option. This is a simple circuit i designed to make a Automation System within a budget.

Analog Mux using 4051

This takes 4-20mA from many Transmitters and gives out just one 4-20 mA output. The Mux is done with a digital byte or word.

 Industrial Process Control Circuits

This is a slow scanner as process is slow, that way many analog inputs can be multiplexed and sent into one analog input of a D/A. In near real time systems a faster mux could be used or mux totally avoided. This was made in some numbers, so the pcb is better than others.

4-20mA Multiplexer Circuit - pdf

Tuesday, September 01, 2020

Online Electrical and Electronics Books

Some books that will help you learn electronics and are free too. Youngsters have a great wealth to find in the libraries. The Present day has made more information available online, it supplements the library resource.

What can never be found in libraries are found on the net and can be searched too. Here every individual shares his projects, ideas and designs and is not edited or moderated by any publisher or media.

- delabs Notes

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)

These are nice Mini Reference Books that can build the Learning of EE students. Some interesting booklets - Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement; Intro. to Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping; Microelectronics and Test Equipment..

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series

Some of the Books on Embedded Systems and Communications are quite good and even the sample chapters will bring an appetite to study the subject and buy the Book.

United States Navy Electricity & Electronics Training Series - NEETS

The Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS) was developed for use by personnel in many electrical and electronic related Navy ratings. Written by, and with the advice of, senior technicians in these ratings, this series provides beginners with fundamental electrical and electronic concepts through self-study. The presentation of this series is not oriented to any specific rating structure, but is divided into modules containing related information organized into traditional paths of instruction.

Multi Zone Temperature Controller System

This is a Multi Zone Temperature Control panel used in Plastic Extrusion Moulding. Building such panels helps us learn cable management techniques.

Multi Zone Temperature Controller

The panel is a standard way it was built and some of the merits were the selection of panel components and wiring expertise.

Electrical Control Panel Wiring

Just like rackmounts hold big instruments or computers, control panels small or big have to hold DIN Instruments, switches and annunciators to make it easy for the operator. The maintenance work also is simple from the backside. It can be kept near the machinery which it controls.

Thursday, August 13, 2020

RF circuit design - theory and applications

The objective of this textbook is to develop the RF circuit design aspects in such a way that the need of transmission line principles is made clear without adopting an electromagnetic field approach.

RF circuit design - Theory and Applications

Therefore, no EM background is necessary beyond a first year undergraduate physics course in fields and waves as provided by most colleges and universities. Students equipped with the knowledge of basic circuit theory and/or an exposure to microelectronics can use this book and cover the entire spectrum from the basic principles of transmission and microstrip lines to the various high-frequency circuit design procedures.

RF Circuit Design - Theory and Applications by R.Ludwig and P.Bretchko

For the advanced students the entry into this field is often pursued through an electromagnetic field approach, while for the technologists the basic circuit aspect embedded in Kirchhoff's laws is the preferred treatment.

Monday, August 03, 2020

Op amps for everyone – Ron Mancini

The operational amplifier ("op amp") is the most versatile and widely used type of analog IC, used in audio and voltage amplifiers, signal conditioners, signal converters, oscillators, and analog computing systems. Almost every electronic device uses at least one op amp.

Op amps for everyone: design reference By Ron Mancini

"The op amp is treated as a completed component in this book.The op amp will continue to be a vital component of analog design because it is such a fundamental component. Each generation of electronics equipment integrates more functions on silicon and takes more of the analog circuitry inside the IC.

Op amps for everyone – Ron Mancini

Op amps for everyone

Don’t fear, as digital applications increase, analog applications also increase because the predominant supply of data and interface applications are in the real world, and the real world is an analog world. Thus, each new generation of electronics equipment creates requirements for new analog circuits; hence, new generations of op amps are required to fulfill these requirements. Analog design, and op amp design, is a fundamental skill that will be required far into the future."

Sunday, August 02, 2020

Uninterrupted Power Distribution for Homes

The Enhancement of Mains power system for Homes and Small Business is critical. The population is more now and the use of electricity for more appliances becomes inevitable, this makes power shortages imminent.

Power Electronics & Solar Energy

The power to Homes can be distributed by two types of phase lines (live), a common neutral and the usual earth. High Phase is for Heaters and Motors and some lighting too. This phase can be shut down on power failure, load management or over use. The other is the Green Energy line, a low current phase which never fails! It is used only for lighting and small and light electronic appliances. It is a limited energy line.

"Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services."

That means, so much kWhr for a month, beyond which the line will trip off for the month. This Green Line is augmented by solar, wind or tidal electricity. That way this Green Line is Uninterrupted, but Energy Limited. This will bring a sense of responsibility on the consumer, who will plan the usage of his Green Power Line carefully.

Wednesday, July 01, 2020

NO-NC SSR Plastic Box

This was a Fire Retardant Plastic Box which was made for the SSR I/O Stackable Modules. DC Control for an AC Load. Usually it is to control another Big Three phase contactor;

Pneumatic or Steam Valve, Solenoids-Motors. When Mounted at the end of the PCB it offers over 2kV Isolation from the Digital Circuits. The Output 230V signals NO-NC, can control Light Loads like the Coil of a Big 230V Relay also called contactor.

NO-NC SSR Plastic Box delabs

It could be Mounted on a PCB by soldering or a Plugin Base. It is better to have Crimped connections or Terminals. A very good quality spring Loaded Socket may also work but it has to be rated for many operations. Things like Nickle Alloy Plated, Beryllium Copper were the Materials Jargon. A contact resistance in the Terminals, a mismatch of alloys, electrochemical reactions, Corrosive Fumes, Brine or High Humidity can build a Loose connection into a Dangerous Sparking Contact.

Not only the Functionality of the SSR will be affected in a Sparking Contact, but a Risk of a Fire Developing. When Inflammable Materials or Volatile Liquids are Present Nearby, the risk is even greater.

Read More - Solid State Relays SSR

Control Interface to PC Ports

A computer can be used to control or automate systems. From turning lights on/off at your home to shutting down motors or heaters in industries. Speed control and PID Control too.

PC based Instrumentation is easy to implement using USB Devices and Plugin Cards for Test and Measurement.  Most instruments can communicate with PC on the GPIB interface.

Control Interface to PC Ports

USB interfaces have made such PC based Data Acquisition and Controls much easier. In the early days it was Printer Port and Serial Port. The future is for Wireless Device Networking.

Control Interface to PC Ports.

When Intelligent Devices (embedded systems) are privately and securely networked, it is called the Intranet of Things. This is like a Home-Office-Business private closed Cloud. This is ideal for Home and Infrastructure Automation and even Big Business or SMB Automation.

This can get you started too. The few examples above show an instrumentation - Logic Analyzer 'Like' interface and a relay-display driver circuit. They are examples i tried for students to try out and learn.