Wednesday, June 08, 2016

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

Here are two important educational reference books from Texas Instruments in PDF format.

"While in the process of reviewing Texas Instruments applications notes, including those from the recently acquired Burr-Brown - I uncovered a couple of treasures, this handbook on active RC networks and one on op amp applications. These old publications, from 1966 and 1963, respectively, are some of the finest works on op amp theory that I have ever seen. Nevertheless, they contain some material that is hopelessly outdated. This includes everything from the state of the art of amplifier technology, to the parts referenced in the document - even to the symbol used for the op amp itself:"

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications - PDF
by Bruce Carter and Thomas R. Brown - sboa092a.pdf - 2.1 Mb

The operational amplifier is an extremely efficient and versatile device. Its applications span the broad electronic industry filling requirements for signal conditioning, special transfer functions, analog instrumentation, analog computation, and special systems design. The analog assets of simplicity and precision characterize circuits utilizing operational amplifiers.

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Active RC Networks - PDF
by Bruce Carter and L.P. Huelsman - sboa093a.pdf - 3.6 Mb

This is a handbook on active RC networks. The first question about this subject that one might ask is, "What is an active RC network?" The answer is simple. It is collection of resistors, capacitors, and an active element (or elements). Viewed in another sense; it is a circuit without inductors. Why leave out inductors? There are many reasons. First of all, the inductor is a relatively large and heavy element. This is especially true at frequencies in the audio range and below.

Tuesday, June 07, 2016

How To Learn Electronics

Theory must be studied once and referred again and again as you do practicals. One is by building DIY projects and then modifying them. Also Repair of equipment, troubleshooting, testing and calibrating. Then you know how components behave and real life limitations. Now design and engineer a product and test it at customer site. do a pilot production and test with more clients. Now you will learn to think based on practical application.

Integrated into Electronic Tables and Charts in 2016

This invention lead to modern electronics, computers and internet look at this page, Transistor Photo.

History of The Transistor

History of The Transistor the "Crystal Triode"

A picture of the first transistor ever assembled, invented in Bell Labs in 1947. It was called a point contact transistor because amplification or transistor action occurred when two pointed metal contacts were pressed onto the surface of the semiconductor material.

Light and different frequencies Electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic spectrum

Saturday, June 04, 2016

Function and Waveform Generators – IC

An Oscilloscope could be used to monitor the test points and the output of systems or modules. A function generator injects the input or simulates a input condition. It could be Sine Wave, Triangle Wave, Ramp or Square wave. Frequency, Amplitude and Duty cycle (square) are variable settings.

For radios and amplifiers a simpler set is used it is called "Signal Injector" and "Signal Tracer". In Digital System a Pulse Generator and a Logic Probe may be used.

delabs Notes


The AD5932 is a waveform generator providing a programmable frequency scan. Utilizing embedded digital processing allowing enhanced frequency control the device generates synthesized analog or digital frequency-stepped waveforms.

AD5932 - Programmable Single-Scan Waveform Generator

This product from Analog Devices is Active. Sinusoidal/triangular/square wave outputs. Output frequency up to 25 Mhz.

The chips below may not be in production, but available in some stores.


XR2206 - Monolithic Function Generator

XR2206 - Monolithic Function Generator

The XR2206 is a monolithic function generator integrated circuit capable of producing high quality sine, square, triangle, ramp, and pulse waveforms of high-stability and accuracy. The output waveforms can be both amplitude and frequency modulated by an external voltage. Frequency of operation can be selected externally over a range of 0.01Hz to more than 1MHz.

XR2209 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

XR2209 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

The XR2209 is a monolithic voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) integrated circuit featuring excellent frequency stability and a wide tuning range. The circuit provides simultaneous triangle and squarewave outputs over a frequency range of 0.01Hz to 1MHz. It is ideally suited for FM, FSK and sweep or tone generation, as well as for phase-locked loop applications. Waveform Generation Triangle, Sawtooth, Pulse, Squarewave.

ICL8038 Precision Waveform Generator/Voltage Controlled Oscillator

The ICL8038 waveform generator is a monolithic integrated circuit capable of producing high accuracy sine, square, triangular, sawtooth and pulse waveforms with a minimum of external components. The frequency (or repetition rate) can be selected externally from 0.001Hz to more than 300kHz using either resistors or capacitors, and frequency modulation and sweeping can be accomplished with an external voltage.

delabs Notes

This was one of my favorite chips. This is of educational value. It was a pioneer chip a mixed cmos device. Make it a point to read the Datasheet. Chip may have been invented 1980 around. This is study material for college.

It is not available in stores. Some EE Engineer or Ham-DIY Enthusiast may have a few. Borrow and try it out for learning.

Science Fiction - Advanced Students can try configuring it in a Programmable Mixed Chip EDA tool plugin, if someone has developed that. Try taking a draft output on a semiconductor laser nano-milling prototype printer with a built in Mems pico-doper. If that works, lets go foundry!

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