Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

Ergonomics and Manpower the Engine of Growth -  A Worker in One Firm is a Customer for another Firm. Healthy and Safe Workers implies a strengthening Consumer base.Just imagine what wonders it can do for the economy, when you broaden your view, think togetherness, as a Whole; not in isolated competitive groups, not in parts.

Ergonomics reduces Worker Stress. Helps in keeping good Mental and Physical Health. Safety is very important. His Limbs, Eyes and Ears are assets that a firm hires.

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

A good Manager knows that Manpower is the Foremost Asset of any Company.
First Aid and Flame Resistant Uniforms

Tools and Apparel to make workplace safe. First Aid and Safety, Fire Protection and Flame Resistant Clothing. Cleanrooms  are very important for Microelectronics, MEMS and Precision Instrumentation.

In spite of "Prevention better than cure", a worker can get injured, more so on the field, where preventive measures may not be in place. A Portable First Aid Kit that should be in Service and Commissioning Departments. A stitch in time saves nine. in reference to: "Your employees may require first aid at remote worksites, too."

Worker Safety and Health Education

When we educate ourselves about a Hazard, that awareness is the first step of defense. Resources like this should have a Kids Section. Just like Nasa and Fcc have. We have to catch them young, Interactive tutors and Activities will prepare them for a Safe and Sensible future. Home, Garden, Transport and School are also like a Workpace.

Kids of recent generations are degrading intellectually, it is more so in the developed countries. Education has to be emphasized, Hobby DIY activities encouraged. Hardships simulated, so they become responsible Young Citizens.

Rockefeller Jr. (A Philanthropist) was brought up with such discipline, he was not allowed entertainment when he was young. His father the richest man in the US at that time.

Resource for Workers and Employers. CDC - Workplace Safety and Health

Intrinsic Safety and Zener Barriers

Designing and Building Intrinsically safe Industrial Systems is of paramount importance as Human Safety is involved. Even in Switching Loads some contactors, relays, circuit breakers and motors are hazards as some sparking becomes inevitable.

Intrinsic Safety - Omega.com

Solid State Relays are safer but on an overload even these can pose a fire hazard if a HRC fuse is not used. Sensor measurements must employ low voltages and currents. Even cabling management and hermetically sealed enclosures may be required when volatile fluids are close by.

delabs Notes - 2002 -2005

Thursday, April 05, 2018

Two Setpoint Temperature Controller

A Two Point Process Controller or Temperature Controller would look like this. When a High-Low Alarm Protection for uC based Controller was needed the same was modified and used.

Sometimes uC based instruments just forget and that can be costly, the watchdog timer has solved this problem. In Industrial Process Control we cannot take any chances, so a two tier or even three tier protection is required, especially so if the Job or Raw material being processed is expensive. So Real Time Analog Trip + uC Controller is safe. Then you can still have Electro Mechanical Devices for Extra protection against Fire or Meltdown.

Temperature is the most common process parameter, Pressure seems to be next. Flow, Level, RPM, Distance and many more follow.

Two Setpoint Temperature Controller

When a physical parameter let us say distance is measured, we first need a sensor that converts it into electrical values, digital or analog. The sensor used for length is a Linear encoder and it creates the electrical information for the DRO to Display.

Now many sensors like a strain gauge produce very low and weak signals and some are non-linear. So the signals undergo Amplifying, Temperature compensation and Linearizing together called Signal Conditioning. This stage outputs some standard values like 4-20mA, 0-10 V, 1-5V, or even directly digital or wireless in the new technologies. Even when a digital interfacing standard is used, amplification and some signal conditioning is required at sensor end. Compensation and Linearizing can be better done with a uC using Math or Look up Tables.

When you have many different parameters then it is better to use process controllers with a 4-20mA input standard. Then the inventory of controllers can be reused for any process.

It is always better to use sensor-end transmitters to get 4-20mA to your Controller, Recorder or SCADA System.Weak signals are corrupted by noise and dont travel long wire distance. Junction EMF at joints and terminal blocks add to errors. These are overcome by the 4-20mA signal that has the juice and punch to transmit the data over the shop floor to the control panel rooms.

Read more here Temperature Measurement and Control

Sunday, April 01, 2018

Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Caution is better than Risk, Prevention is better than cure. using the the right tools for a job alone is not sufficient; You have to get trained and informed about its proper use and safety precautions.

When we Design a Product or Develop further a design; we have to integrate Product Safety into the usage method and improve usability and safety. Product also has to be Engineered in such a way that manufacturing it does not pose hazard to the worker.

Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Product Safety
  • Product should not give even the lightest shock, Even metal parts on user side to be laminated.
  • High energy circuits never enters analog and digital circuit areas without Opto or other Isolation.
  • Gadgets, Furniture, Tools and Storage Units should not cause injury. Rounded Edges, Non Toxic.
  • LED and Lasers can damage Vision, welding too. Use Protective Filter Glasses. After a comment by John Bump
Worker Safety
  • Helmet, Goggles and Face/Respiratory Mask when working with power tools/ abrasion and large objects.
  • Crepe Bandage, Neoprene Ankle/Knee/Thigh Support when pushing or pulling or Physical Exertion.
  • Waist/Back Support Belts and Straps to reinforce back/spine while doing Heavy Lifting or Movement.
  • Waistband Thick Belt or Traditional Sash helps Posture and prevents slipped disc or spinal injury.
  • When using a Knife, Sharp Tool, Pointed Tool or Drill; cut/bore away from your body or finger/leg not towards.
  • Use Long Riding Leather/Synthetic Boots when working in chemical plants and heavy industry.
  • Cross Ventilation and exhaust fans important if even little chemical fumes are generated in your work.
  • Soldering, plastic forming and even for some kinds of material processing. Good Ventilation or Masks needed.

Contents

Basic Electronics
Basics of Electronics
Product Production
Work Discipline
Testing Points
Learning Electronics
Electronics Theory

Production Notes
Prototype Fabrication
Electrical Circuits
Electromechanical


Library
Scots Guide Electronics
Engineering - Wikibooks
Design Lab - Jim Svoboda
DC Circuits UOG
Socratic Electronics
Blobz Guide Electric Circuits


Product Design
Product Development
Constant Current Source
Good Voltage Regulators
Insulation Resistance
Digital Insulation Tester
DN Schematic PCB 04
DN Product Design 07


Hobby Circuits
VU Meter Circuits
LED brightness control
555 Incredible Chip
Process Control
liquid level measurement
Thermocouples and RTD
Design ADC Interface uC
Thermocouple Amplifier
IA Instrumentation 02
Temperature on DMM
Optical Proximity Switch
Analog Mux - Data Acquisition


Test Measurement
Instrumentation Automation
NI Test and Measurement
DMM Digital Multi Meter
Oscilloscope in T&M
IA Automation 01
Build Instruments
Tektronix T&M Equipment
Educators Corner – Agilent


Power Electronics
UPS Background
Transformer Connections
DN Power Electronics 03
DN Power Electronics 02
Half Bridge Convertor SG3525


Embedded
Interfacing Microcontrollers
Embedded Process Control
80C31 8052 Microcontroller
Microprocessors and uC
Embedded Systems Design

Components
Good Voltage Regulators
Relays and Contactors
Potentiometers Trimpots
Prototype Boards Types
Types of Capacitors
Types of Switches
Resistors How they Work
Coils Transformers SMPS
Mains Transformers Types
DN Components Selection 05

Tutor Gadgets
Count-Up Timer
Digital Logic Gates
Electronics Tutors

History
Teaching Instruments
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Muntzing a Circuit Design
Teralab Electronics projects
Historical Instruments


Tables, Charts, Videos
Binary and Hex
Resistor Color Code
Ohms Law
Giga, Tera, Pico, Nano
High Resistance Materials

Analog
School - Analog Design
DN Analog Basics 06
DN Op-Amps 01
TI Semiconductors

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