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Wednesday, August 07, 2019

Function Generator using the CA3140

Here is a complete project which will help in learning to apply the CA3140 in a small instrument that could be used in your test bench along with the oscilloscope. It is necessary to study the datasheet for understanding the device and this application with full details.

CA3140 4.5MHz, BiMOS Operational Amplifier with MOSFET Input/Bipolar Output



"A function generator having a wide tuning range is shown in Figure 10. The 1,000,000/1 adjustment range is accomplished by a single variable potentiometer or by an auxiliary sweeping signal. The CA3140 functions as a non-inverting readout amplifier of the triangular signal developed across the integrating capacitor network connected to the output of the CA3080A current source."

Science Toys - Edutainment at Home

Make toys at home with common household materials, often in only a few minutes, that demonstrate fascinating scientific principles.  - Creator - Simon Field

Science Toys - Edutainment at Home

This Website is a valuable resource for students to learn basics and get interested in electronics and computers - delabs

Science Toys - Edutainment at Home

Electromagnetism: - An electric motor in 10 minutes

The motor is simply a battery, a magnet, and a small coil of wire you make yourself. There is a secret to making it (which I will of course share with you) which is at the same time clever and delightfully simple.

Other Projects - Fun with High Voltage, A 10 minute railgun, A 30 second motor.
    Radio: A quick and simple radio

    The reason a crystal radio does not need any batteries is the amazing capabilities of the human ear. The ear is extremely sensitive to very faint sounds. The crystal radio uses only the energy of the radio waves sent by radio transmitters.

    Others are Building a radio in 10 minutes, Build a portable crystal radio, A radio out of household items, A simple AM transmitter, The Three-Penny Radio.
      Computers and Electronics: A Computer Controlled Transmitter

      In this project we will build a very simple radio transmitter that you attach to a serial port on your computer. The computer then runs a free program that converts words you type into radio signals that are decoded by another computer, using a cheap radio receiver, and a sound card.

      More - A Free Space Laser Data Transmitter, Fun With Solderless Breadboards, A Simple 1 Watt Amplifier

        Electronics Product Design

        Product Design

        When you wish to Begin to learn Electronics, first a short study of Physics is essential, secondly some Electronics theory. Then build simple and small gadgets to learn Practical Electronics while working with Educational Hobby Circuits.  Lastly to make your own product designs, a fundamental knowledge of Analog and Digital Electronics is the foundation for your next steps into Engineering a Design.  

        Applications and Components

        The basic building blocks for most circuits are Chips or ICs. You can acquire considerable knowledge by studying Application notes to start with. When you want to use a Microprocessor or Build Your Own Microcontroller Projects, you can study the IC Datasheets and use an Evaluation Kit with Programmer. The Specifications and Behavior of Passive Components like inductors, capacitors and Resistors; Discrete Semiconductors; Power Devices. and RF Components have to be understood well, in order to design sturdy Industrial Grade Designs

        Electronics Product Design

        Advanced Engineering

        The Technology related to the equipment used for Testing, Troubleshooting and Calibration is called Test & Measurement, Here we use Test Instruments like Oscilloscopes and Digital Multimeters. Medical Electronics and Military Designs require more meticulous, robust and dedicated designs with higher reliability and accuracy. In Medical electronics product safety is vital, Consumer products should be affordable without compromising Human Safety factors. Then you need to look into Usability or Ergonomics, which is a science that helps us develop practical and cost-effective products, which have an optimum Man-Machine Interface. EMI, ESD, RFI are other important aspects that deals with Electromagnetic, Electrostatic and RF; Noise and Interference; in the Stable performance of products in Real World Harsh Environments or the Reliable Transmission of data.

        Lastly Computing and Communication makes products more versatile in any application. EDA, Technical Computing and Systems Engineering helps creating products and complete process solutions.

        Industrial Automation and Process Control

        Automation and Control is the predecessor of Robotics and Mechatronics. A Control system is made of Sensors sending acquired data to a Controller which operates Actuators to manage the process in Real Time. Starting from a Bimetal Thermostat to a SCADA, the controller has grown from mechanical -- electrical -- analog -- digital devices to microcontroller-computer based equipment.

        Both in Control Systems and Robotics the Collaboration between Robots or Control Units, leads to the development of wireless network of Interactive, Intelligent and Distributed Self Governing Systems. The outcome is Web Process Automation, Web Applications based Solutions in Monitoring, Analyzing and Configuring these Sophisticated Networked Systems.

        delabs design notes - First posted in the frontpage of "delabs circuits"  around 2002

        Thursday, July 18, 2019

        Electronic Educational Applets - Paul Falstad

        "These are some educational java applets I wrote to help visualize various concepts in math, physics, and engineering." - Paul Falstad - (now with HTML5 and Canvas)

        Electronic Educational Applets - Paul Falstad
        • Math and Physics Applets - MyPhysicsLab - Physics Simulation with Java.
        • Index of Circuit Examples - Demonstrates various electronic circuits.
        • Digital Filters - Filters digital signals and plays the output on your speakers.
        • Acoustic Interference Applet - Audio interference between your speakers.
        • Waveguide Modes Applet - Electromagnetic waves in a waveguide.
        • Antenna Applet - Generates antenna radiation patterns.
        Electronic Educational Applets - Paul Falstad

        Analog Circuit Simulator Applet - Demonstrates various electronic circuits.

        "This java applet (html5 now!) is an electronic circuit simulator.  When the applet starts up you will see an animated schematic of a simple LRC circuit. The green color indicates positive voltage.  The gray color indicates ground.  A red color indicates negative voltage.  The moving yellow dots indicate current."

        Its advanced simulation engine can handle both analog and digital circuits and features real-time always-on analysis. It is the perfect companion to students, hobbyists, and engineers.

        Build any circuit, watch dynamic voltage, current, and charge animations. This gives you insight into circuit operation like no equation does. While simulation is running, adjust circuit parameters with, and the circuit responds to your actions in real time.

          Wednesday, July 17, 2019

          Math.com – Calculators and Tools

          "Math.com is dedicated to providing revolutionary ways for students, parents, teachers, and everyone to learn math. Combining educationally sound principles with proprietary technology, Math.com offers a unique experience that quickly guides the user to the solutions they need and the products they want. "

          Math.com - Calculators and Tools
          • Calculators and Tools
          • Math Practice
          • Formulas & Tables
          • Wonders of Math
          maths online is a project based at the University of Vienna, Austria, and is running since March 1998.

          delabs Technologies

          "An Engineer without some working knowledge of Maths is like a Plumber without a Pipe Wrench. Hobby Enthusiasts learn this science, even as they create and fix things."


          Math Jedica

          Educationists should have two approaches to Math. One the conventional, which is still in practice in many developing countries. The other, that is new, which is interactive, edutainment based, is needed for more than 60 % of the students.

          Elektrick the Power Jedi

          The brain works differently in various people, because there are mainly two types of brains. One is Predominantly Creative/Practical, the other is Analytical/Logical. Both types are present in each individual, one type is dominant; which define their learning abilities.

          When only a traditional approach is taken, many are deprived of a Mathematics Education. Educational Methods have to become realistic and innovate.

          Thursday, July 11, 2019

          Measurement Basics at National Instruments

          For an T&M Learning, Start with these tutors of NI. Like Analog Amplifier Circuits and Analog RC Filters. RF and Microwave Fundamentals if you want to be good at Communication Technologies. Sensor, DAQ and Instrument Fundamentals for Industrial Automation Learning.

          Measurement Fundamentals - National Instruments

          National Instruments Wi-Fi DAQ devices combine IEEE 802.11 wireless or Ethernet communication, direct sensor connectivity, and the flexibility of NI LabVIEW software for remote monitoring and control of electrical, physical, mechanical, and acoustical signals.

          Measurement Basics at National Instruments

          NI Wi-Fi DAQ features and to learn how you can simplify wireless remote measurements without compromising on the security or performance of a cabled data acquisition solution.

          delabs Notes

          You can learn about every niche/domain in Electronic Technologies. You also need to Specialize in a niche which resonates within you. The skill sets need to be broad, in case you find less opportunities in the specialization you have. This keeps changing all the time.

          Monday, June 17, 2019

          Reference Charts RF µWave Communications - Anritsu

          These charts provide Band Designation, RF Measurements Conversion Tables, RF Spectrum Bands, RF Connector Comparison Tables, S-Paramaters, the Electromagnetic Spectrum, Waveguide Designation,

          Power to Voltage Conversion, Spectrum Analyzer Conversion Factors, SWR ñ Reflection Coefficient ñ Return Loss, Power Measurements, Amplitude Modulation, Pulse Modulation, Frequency Modulation, and Bessel Functions. From - Anritsu Reference

          Reference Charts RF µWave Communications - Anritsu

          Reference Charts for RF & µWave Communications - Anritsu

          "Conversion tables for return loss, reflection coefficicient, and SWR with values for interaction of a small phasor (utility reference) expressed in dB related to the reference.

          In microwave circuit design S-parameters are very useful for the full characterisation of any 2 port network. In contrast to z,y and h-parameters, which require broadband short circuited and open circuited connections at the TEST ITEM for the measurement,

          S-parameters are determined with input and output terminated with the resistive characteristic impedance of test systems (generally 50 ohms in a coaxial line system). Parasitic oscillations in active devices are minimised when these devices are terminated in resistive loads."

          Sunday, June 02, 2019

          100kHz Half Bridge Convertor - SG3525

          This is a SMPS Circuit using SG3525 improved over the Application Note in the book SGS Motion Control Application Manual. This worked well. It helps you learn more about High Frequency Power Supply Design.

          The PCB and Schematics have been listed below, PCB track thickness and reinforcements are critical. The transformer winding and isolation should be done in a professional manner.

          Read about SG2525 - SG3525 - PWM SMPS Regulator Chip.

          100kHz Half Bridge Convertor - SG3525

          SG3525Voltage Mode PWM

          SG2525 - SG3525 - PWM SMPS Regulator Chip. A second generation ic switch mode controller optimized for high frequency.

          Saturday, June 01, 2019

          Digital Circuits - PDF Circuits - delabs

          These circuits are based on CD40xx Chips and other. You can use 74HCT or any other series that is available. use one family for a particular project. These were used nearly two decades ago. Use it for learning, glue logic or to interface your uC designs to external devices. Do not make only Logic based designs like some below. It would be better to use a uC, CPLD or FPGA if you are building a complex gadget Basic Digital Circuits

          Digital Circuits - PDF Circuits - delabs

          Digital Circuits - delabs

          LM331 is a Voltage-to-Frequency Converters and 74C926 is a 4 Digit Counter. The first part of the circuit converts the amplified DC analog value from a shunt to pulses. The Second counts the pulses and Displays it on a Seven segment LED display.

          Digital Timers, Counters and Clocks
          • Sequential Timer CD40xx
          • Sequential Timer 7217
          • Six Digit preset counter CD4518
          • Analog timer CD4541
          • Quad Presettable Timers
          • Digital Comparator 74HC85
          • Sequential Timer/counter 7217 with RAM
          • CD4060 and CD4020 based long duration timer.
          • Digital Timer Clock With Preset using Thumbwheel switch.
          • 1 Hz or 1 pps crystal clock using CD4060 and 32768 Hz Crystal
          Mixed and Interface Circuits
          • Optical Proximity Switch
          • Profile Controller
          • Toaster timer 555
          • Quad analog input switch logic
          • Optical switch for water tap using LM555 and LM567
          • Diff input DS8830 to TTL convertor
          • Phase lock loop using 4046
          • Am hour meter for battery chargers or electroplating equipment. 74C926

          Tuesday, May 21, 2019

          Three Point Preset Counter

          This is a prototype of a Preset Counter. It is built with ICM7217. The cabinet is ABS Plastic DIN 96-96. The Panel is Engraved on Acrylic.

          I don't remember for which application it was used. It has three thumbwheel settings, when the proximity switch counts upto the set-value, the corresponding relay turns ON, with a State Indicating LED on front panel.

          Three Point Preset Counter

          These can be configured sequentially or to work synchronously, this depends on what customer wants. Both modes may give the same result. In sequential operation, Some of these counters-timers may need to wait for an external trigger or feedback from a limit switch or another process like pressure alarm. Then more Input options may have to be provided.

          Basic Electronic Digital Circuits

          Counters, timers, analog-process and its interconnectivity makes up the various process loops or chain-reactions in Machine control. The various types of sensors for measurement and feedback of analog and event parameters, monitor the mechanical system and communicate the data to the process instruments.

          Resistors and How they Work

          Resistors start from Wires to Wirewound Types. Carbon Film Resistors are most Common, Metal Film Resistors are more stable and accurate. We have now SMD types with lower power some are Laser Trimmed Types for accurate values. Resistors Arrays are used in Digital Circuits.

          Types of Resistors - Color code and Other Resources

          1/4 W Resistors have a Voltage rating of around 200-250V. Even when using a High value like 1 Meg use two in series when it is across Mains 230 V AC. 470K + 470K - you get around a Meg at 500V
          Rating.

          Resistors and How they Work

          Resistor 1/4W Metal Film
          A standard range of 1/4W Metal Film Resistors suitable for most applications. High stability and solid construction ensure a long and stable life. 1% tolerance for the full range from 1R to 10M.

          Riedon Resistors - Wirewound, Thick & Thin Film, and also Foil resistive elements.current sense, high pulse, high surge, surface mount, power and precision wirewound resistors.

          High Performance Resistor Networks from Caddock - precision resistors, high voltage resistors, current sense resistors, chip resistors, high frequency resistors, and load resistors.

          Ohmite’s Audio Gold resistors have been carefully engineered with non-magnetic materials to eliminate the effects of these stray magnetic fields on circuit performance. Ohmite’s LVC Series low value chip resistors are ideal for today’s current sense applications requiring low profile, low cost solutions

          Mains Transformers Types

          Low Frequency Power Transformers are used to step down mains voltage of 230V or 110V to safer voltages like 12V and 6V. The core is made of laminations of a Conditioned Alloy of Iron. The windings are Enameled or Insulated Copper Wire. They provide both Isolation and Safety while Scaling the Voltage and Power.

          Mains Voltage Power Transformers

          Mains Transformers Types

          Transformers Made by Hammond Manufacturing

          Monday, April 22, 2019

          Capilano Computing - DesignWorks Schematic Capture

          A well known firm in software tools for electronic design. Incorporated in 1982, Products Include Designworks Professional, DesignWorks Simulator and LogicWorks.

          Capilano Computing - DesignWorks Schematic Capture

          "DesignWorks Professional 5 doesn't just provide an environment for a single goal. It allows you to recapture your investment dollars by being flexible enough to handle all your design goals, be the goal a PCB design, Spice analysis, or simulation. You are not locked in to one PCB or simulation vendor."

          LogicWorks 5

          What is LogicWorks 5

          LogicWorks is an interactive circuit design tool intended for teaching and learning digital logic. No other software tool makes digital design easier, faster or more interactive than LogicWorks. The package gives you the power, speed and flexibility to create and test an unlimited number of circuit elements on-screen.

          New in LogicWorks 5 for Windows is the ability to use a subset of the standard VHDL language to describe and simulate circuits. Hardware designs can freely mix devices and circuits described as schematic diagrams with blocks described textually using VHDL. See our VHDL page for a description of the language implementation in this version.

          Capilano Computing
          2631 Vikining Way, Suite 218  Richmond BC, Canada V6V 3B5

          Thursday, April 18, 2019

          Electricity and Magnetism - Molecular Expressions

          These Tutors which are Interactive as well are useful for Students and Enthusiasts to enhance the Text Book reading.

          Electricity and Magnetism - Molecular Expressions

          These pages are good for any person who want to be more familiar with magnetism and electricity. This probably means everyone. Today Electricity Basics is General Knowledge and also an Absolute Essential.

          Museum of Electricity and Magnetism - From the world's first "south-pointer" (an early compass) to modern instruments such as the magnetic force microscope, the Museum of Electricity and Magnetism on our sister website at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory will introduce you to a variety of instruments, tools and machines devised over the centuries.

          Electricity and Magnetism - Molecular Expressions
          Faraday's Magnetic Field Induction Experiment

          In 1831, Michael Faraday made his discovery of electromagnetic induction with an experiment using two coils of wire wound around opposite sides of a ring of soft iron similar to the experiment setup below.

          Wednesday, April 17, 2019

          Calculators and Electronic Design Aids

          Calculators are Tools that can get you math right for you. Many need this aid as they cannot quickly learn number patterns. EE design needs many custom calculators to make product development easy.

          Calculators and Electronic Design Aids

          Martindale's Calculators - Electrical Engineering - Engineering Unit Conversion & Scientific Calculators

          Electronics Calculators - These calculators are useful when configuring the headphone amplifiers discussed on this site.

          ESBCalc is a Freeware Scientific Calculator for Windows with Infix Notation, Brackets, Scientific Functions (Trigonometric, Hyperbolic, Logarithmic - including Base 10, Base 2 & Natural - plus more), Memory, Paper Trail, Result History List and more. v5 Includes support for Prefix functions so to evaluate log (10) you can enter log 10 rather than 10 log (which is the default behaviour)

          ESBUnitConv is a Free User-friendly Windows Utility to easily convert between units of measurement. Includes Units for Temperature, Distance, Mass, Area, Volume, Pressure, Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Energy, Power, Fuel Consumption, Flow, Torque, Angles, Luminous Intensity, Illumination, Time & Radioactivity.

          Electronics Calculators Index - EE, RF, Power and Passive Component calculators. Semiconductor device and circuit calculators.

          The Chemandy calculators are designed to be easy to use and follow a common theme and layout where possible. Most of them have been used for several years now and complaints about their accuracy or functionality are very rare.

          Tuesday, February 19, 2019

          Manual of Engineering Information

          Here are useful EE Reference Documents by Ohmite. Ohmite had created a useful manual that helps proper resistor and power component selection. There is also a valuable reference on Resistors.

          Application Notes at Ohmite

          Some of these EE Reference documents are decades old but are Absolute Scientific Documents that an Engineer or Student can refer to.

          Ohmite Applications

          Resistor Terminology and Ohm's Law Guide - Ohm’s Law defines the relationships between (P) power, (V) voltage, (I) cur-rent, and (R) resistance. One ohm is the resistance value through which one volt will maintain a current of one ampere

          Manual of Engineering Information - An Excellent look at the Basics of Electrical Resistance.

          Key to Five-Band Code -This is one code that is Colorfully Encrypted and can only be deciphered by Electronic Enthusiasts.

          Monday, February 18, 2019

          Circuits using only discrete devices

          Here are circuits made of Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors which are passive components. Crystals, Thermistors, Varistors, Variable Passive RLC are also Passive Parts.Some circuits documented from my design note book are here with the editable schematics.

          Circuits using only discrete devices

          Zeners, Diodes, NPN-PNP Transistors, FET, MOSFET, SCR, Triacs are all discrete active devices. ICs and Hybrid Modules are made of many discrete and passive components.

          Circuits using only discrete devices

          In the Integrated Circuits or ASICs, all parts even passives are derived on the Silicon Wafer. In Hybrid Modules the construction uses SMD or Tiny Chip components interconnected in a small ceramic PCB and Hermetically Sealed if needed.
          Parts like Switches, Connectors, Relays and PCBs are ElectroMechanical parts. Nuts, Bolts, Screws, Cabinets and enclosures are Mechanical parts.

          For a Systems Integrator or Control Panel Designer, the Timers, Controllers, PLC which are Electronic Products become Components or Modules along with Contacters, Current Transformers, AC-DC Drives etc.

          Saturday, February 02, 2019

          Basic Electrical Circuits

          Electrical Engineering encompasses Everything in Electronics. Communications, Computers etc. are further specializations of Electronics. So it is best to Identify Electrical Circuits with Electrical Designs which excludes Active Devices. It can include Electronic Products in the form of wireable modules.
          So House and Factory wiring, Appliances like Ovens, Toasters, Power Generation and management; all these are electrical. Motors, Generators, Connectors, Relays, Contacters and Circuit Breakers are Electrical Components.

          See a diagram i made for a Sequential Process Control Unit, custom built for Vacuum Impregnation;

          Sequential Process Control - Vacuum Impregnation

          A Radio or Power Inverter is Electronic. When an Inverter or Electronic AC-DC Motor Drive is used in a Control panel or Power Supply system, that integration is shown as an Electrical Circuit. I feel Simple Consumer Electronic Circuits using Diodes, Transistors, SCR, Capacitors and Resistors can also be taken under electrical circuits; when they are used in Mains-Power or Household Appliances. Solar Energy related circuits also can be studied under Electrical Power Circuits.

          In Electronics RF-Microwave and Communications is a specialization area, Computer Hardware, Software, Internet form another major domain. Networking and Wireless data communication overlaps both the above.

          Power Electronics and Instrumentation are fundamental domains needed for many. Industrial Automation with Process Control Instrumentation is unique, but is supported by the fundamental domains. Many more finer areas like Robotics and Medical Electronics have a much sharper focus.

          Basic Electrical Circuits - delabs

          delabs Technologies

          Thursday, January 24, 2019

          Display ICL7107 - Temperature controller

          This is the Display Circuit and PCB part of of section Temperature Control. Displays should be visible in moderate sunlight or factory lighting. Red Led displays are best for this type. Have a hood on the display area to avoid reflections.



          The above circuit is powered by +5 and -5 from a LM7805 and LM7905 pair. If +/- 12V or +/- 7.5V is used in opamp or digital parts, then use below circuit for the DPM section.

          The ground/earth should be good to get a stable reading, the sensor connections should be sound. It is better to earth the metal DIN enclosure to make the device immune to EMI-RFI.

          5 V Dual Supply with Zeners

          A Steel DIN Enclosure may be difficult but can give your Industrial product Noise Immunity, Powder coating of the cabinet gives it some insulation and aesthetics too.

          The PCB for above
          The PDF Circuit for above Display Card STC1000 

          The PCB copper tracks have to be tinned. Protection coating, masking must be good. Use RTV compound cover on completed PCB, for using in corrosive environments.

          Wednesday, January 23, 2019

          Tutorials for Electronics - Williamson Labs

          These are simple and easy for learning, it is oriented towards practical electronics. It has a rich experience of Glen, who has seen the real electronics engineering as it evolved.

          Tutorials for Electronics - Williamson Labs   Wayback Copy
          • Ergonomics
          • Elementary Electricity
          • Engineering NOTEBOOK
          • Intuitive Electronics
          • Design Flow Chart
          • Transmission Lines
          • Mixers & Modulation
          Williamson Labs and The Laws of Glen

          Engineer under Construction

          School Should Emulate Industry: - The Project Oriented Approach: Enables the Learn by Doing Paradigm.

          Glen is like the Murphy for Electronics Engineering. There has be a "Laws of Glen" one can digest and precipitate from his valuable writings.

          Tuesday, January 22, 2019

          Analog Electronic Circuit Design

          The very first designs that came about were analog designs, a Vacuum Tube amplifier is an example. Analog is the representation of data or physical parameter in an accurate and precise decimal number like + 72.182 mV. The greater the resolution required, the more demanding is the design for achieving high accuracy and low drift. Digital circuits have only two voltage levels, high and low, the third state of floating, Hi-Z or high impedance is only for multiplexing or sharing a bus. This is done so that devices dont drive into each other and it is also used in external port drivers.

          Analog Design and Circuits

          As an analogy, see the conventional water tap as an analog control, an electric light ON-OFF switch as a digital control.

          Bob Pease - Analog Guru

          Among the semiconductor products Bob designed are temperature-voltage frequency converters used in groundbreaking medical research expeditions to Mt. Everest in the 1980s. He also designed a seismic pre-amplifier chip used to measure lunar ground tremors in the US Apollo moon landing missions. Among his more memorable designs are the LM331 voltage to frequency converter and the LM337 adjustable voltage regulator. - Remembering Bob Pease

          Analog Circuits Instrumentation