Solderman Basic Electronics

Basic Electronics, Practical Electronic Projects, Learning Circuit design, Electrical Fundamentals. Edutainment and Interactive Examples.

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Wednesday, November 04, 2020

Analog Blind Dial On Delay Timer

It is called analog dial timer as it has no digital display, but the chip is digital it is CD4541. It is Mains operated, you could make on-delay or off-delay. By changing the caps and resistors or with even dip-switches you could get timing of few seconds to many hours. Circuit is Analog Timer 4541 .

Analog Blind Dial On Delay Timer

Some timers energize the relay after a set delay on power start. Some start with relay energized and turn off after set time. Motors and big systems cannot take fast turn-on and turn-off, Some systems will require sections or modules to start one after another as they are interdependent. 

Tuesday, November 03, 2020

Design of a ADC Interface

Design of a ADC Interface for Microcontroller.

This is in continuation of the thread called "Design of a Thermocouple Amplifier" doc00023.html which is in the same section .

This is just a formatted-edited email thread exported from Eudora from my mailbox using the content concentrator. The circuits below were made by TF a student, This thread has been put online to share information.

The part under "From: delabs" are my writing. there may be some mistakes and broken links.

Tutorials on Basics and Instrumentation Electronics  

Circuits Drawn by the Student.

1. ADC Circuit.

Communications – Australian Photonics CRC

The Communications Revolution, Communications Networks, Optical Fibers, Photonics Devices, Future of Communications, 

Communications - Australian Photonics CRC

"In order to communicate effectively, humans developed languages, signs and writing; however, communicating over long distances has always been a slow process…"

Communications – Australian Photonics CRC

"Some African tribes still use drums to send messages across the savanna."

"On May 24th, 1844, an American artist and inventor called Samuel Morse (1791-1872) sent the first telegraph message from the Supreme Court Chamber of the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington D.C. to a receiver in Baltimore, some 65 km away."

"Thomas Doolittle developed a new process to draw strong copper wire. Because of its better electrical conductivity over iron, copper wires became the standard in telephony."

Thursday, October 08, 2020

The Scots Guide to Electronics

This course is designed to help you learn about components, circuits, and the use of electronics. You can explore the contents in whatever order you wish.The emphasis is on providing information starting at the 'absolute beginners' level, but we hope eventually to provide material of use to anyone interested in electronics and its applications ...

The Scots Guide to Electronics

This section of the Scots Guide deals with Analogue Electronics with a special emphasis on Audio-related topics. There are also some specialist pages on the properties of cables as these relate to audio.

The Scots Guide to Electronics

The First Eleven - Basic electronics courses sometimes make it appear as if electronic engineers have an obsession with voltmeters, batteries, and oscilloscopes. That's because it's often convenient to talk about these when presenting a course at a university, college, or wherever. In reality, the physics and electronics of practical systems like Hi-Fi's, TV's, computers, etc, are much more interesting.

The main components used in electronics are of two general types: passive (e.g. resistors and capacitors) and active (e.g. transistors and integrated circuits). The main difference between active and passive components is that active ones require to be powered in some way to make them work. Active components can also be used to amplify signals.

by J. C. G. Lesurf University of St Andrews Astronomy Group, Scotland.

Category Engineering - Wikibooks

This category contains a number of subcategories, books, and pages related to Electrical engineering. Books can be found on the Engineering EE. Courses can be found at Wikiversity:School of Engineering.

Subcategories include specific engineering disciplines, including Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Civil Engineering. Also, some books that are general to all disciplines are listed here.

Digital-to-analog converter

A DAC converts an abstract finite-precision number (usually a fixed-point binary number) into a physical quantity (e.g., a voltage or a pressure). In particular, DACs are often used to convert finite-precision time series data to a continually varying physical signal.

Digital-to-analog converter

Analog and Digital Conversion, Automatic Control Engineering, Automotive Systems. Basic Electrical Generation, Basic Electricity, Biography of Nikola Tesla.

Circuit Idea, Circuit Theory, Communication Systems, Control Systems. Digital Circuits, Digital Signal Processing, Electronics, Embedded Control Systems Design

Embedded Systems, Practical Electronics, Power Systems Analysis, Design, and Control Microprocessor Design, Engineering Tables, Semiconductors, SensorNetworks

Thursday, October 01, 2020

Electronic Shift Monitor

The Security Guard duty monitor below, shown in eight circuits at Digital Circuits - 1 are examples of logic circuits, i have converted them from the DOS Orcad to Orcad 9 and corrected some errors a few years back.

Electronic Shift Monitor - delabs

These circuits can be used for looking at the logic blocks or to learn. This product was built and sold to some firms many years back. Now these designs are best done with a PIC or Atmel chip. Here is the user manual

This circuit was done with CMOS CD40xx type of ICs. A RAM was used to store the Day/Time LED Status.

It was to monitor the Alertness of the Security Guard. Periodically the Unit will Buzz and Flash and the Security Guard has to press a Big Button to indicate he is awake, alert, agile and around the Unit.

All Green means fine, few Red LEDs means the Guard was sleeping or gone away from some times. All Red means Security Guard is missing. :-)

Sunday, September 06, 2020

Analog Mux for Data Acquisition Systems

Here is a 4-20 mA In/Out Analog Mux with Cascade option. This is a simple circuit i designed to make a Automation System within a budget.

Analog Mux using 4051

This takes 4-20mA from many Transmitters and gives out just one 4-20 mA output. The Mux is done with a digital byte or word.

 Industrial Process Control Circuits

This is a slow scanner as process is slow, that way many analog inputs can be multiplexed and sent into one analog input of a D/A. In near real time systems a faster mux could be used or mux totally avoided. This was made in some numbers, so the pcb is better than others.

4-20mA Multiplexer Circuit - pdf

Tuesday, September 01, 2020

Online Electrical and Electronics Books

Some books that will help you learn electronics and are free too. Youngsters have a great wealth to find in the libraries. The Present day has made more information available online, it supplements the library resource.

What can never be found in libraries are found on the net and can be searched too. Here every individual shares his projects, ideas and designs and is not edited or moderated by any publisher or media.

- delabs Notes

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)

These are nice Mini Reference Books that can build the Learning of EE students. Some interesting booklets - Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement; Intro. to Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping; Microelectronics and Test Equipment..

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series

Some of the Books on Embedded Systems and Communications are quite good and even the sample chapters will bring an appetite to study the subject and buy the Book.

United States Navy Electricity & Electronics Training Series - NEETS

The Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS) was developed for use by personnel in many electrical and electronic related Navy ratings. Written by, and with the advice of, senior technicians in these ratings, this series provides beginners with fundamental electrical and electronic concepts through self-study. The presentation of this series is not oriented to any specific rating structure, but is divided into modules containing related information organized into traditional paths of instruction.

Multi Zone Temperature Controller System

This is a Multi Zone Temperature Control panel used in Plastic Extrusion Moulding. Building such panels helps us learn cable management techniques.

Multi Zone Temperature Controller

The panel is a standard way it was built and some of the merits were the selection of panel components and wiring expertise.

Electrical Control Panel Wiring

Just like rackmounts hold big instruments or computers, control panels small or big have to hold DIN Instruments, switches and annunciators to make it easy for the operator. The maintenance work also is simple from the backside. It can be kept near the machinery which it controls.

Thursday, August 13, 2020

RF circuit design - theory and applications

The objective of this textbook is to develop the RF circuit design aspects in such a way that the need of transmission line principles is made clear without adopting an electromagnetic field approach.

RF circuit design - Theory and Applications

Therefore, no EM background is necessary beyond a first year undergraduate physics course in fields and waves as provided by most colleges and universities. Students equipped with the knowledge of basic circuit theory and/or an exposure to microelectronics can use this book and cover the entire spectrum from the basic principles of transmission and microstrip lines to the various high-frequency circuit design procedures.

RF Circuit Design - Theory and Applications by R.Ludwig and P.Bretchko

For the advanced students the entry into this field is often pursued through an electromagnetic field approach, while for the technologists the basic circuit aspect embedded in Kirchhoff's laws is the preferred treatment.

Monday, August 03, 2020

Op amps for everyone – Ron Mancini

The operational amplifier ("op amp") is the most versatile and widely used type of analog IC, used in audio and voltage amplifiers, signal conditioners, signal converters, oscillators, and analog computing systems. Almost every electronic device uses at least one op amp.

Op amps for everyone: design reference By Ron Mancini

"The op amp is treated as a completed component in this book.The op amp will continue to be a vital component of analog design because it is such a fundamental component. Each generation of electronics equipment integrates more functions on silicon and takes more of the analog circuitry inside the IC.

Op amps for everyone – Ron Mancini

Op amps for everyone

Don’t fear, as digital applications increase, analog applications also increase because the predominant supply of data and interface applications are in the real world, and the real world is an analog world. Thus, each new generation of electronics equipment creates requirements for new analog circuits; hence, new generations of op amps are required to fulfill these requirements. Analog design, and op amp design, is a fundamental skill that will be required far into the future."

Sunday, August 02, 2020

Uninterrupted Power Distribution for Homes

The Enhancement of Mains power system for Homes and Small Business is critical. The population is more now and the use of electricity for more appliances becomes inevitable, this makes power shortages imminent.

Power Electronics & Solar Energy

The power to Homes can be distributed by two types of phase lines (live), a common neutral and the usual earth. High Phase is for Heaters and Motors and some lighting too. This phase can be shut down on power failure, load management or over use. The other is the Green Energy line, a low current phase which never fails! It is used only for lighting and small and light electronic appliances. It is a limited energy line.

"Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services."

That means, so much kWhr for a month, beyond which the line will trip off for the month. This Green Line is augmented by solar, wind or tidal electricity. That way this Green Line is Uninterrupted, but Energy Limited. This will bring a sense of responsibility on the consumer, who will plan the usage of his Green Power Line carefully.

Wednesday, July 01, 2020

NO-NC SSR Plastic Box

This was a Fire Retardant Plastic Box which was made for the SSR I/O Stackable Modules. DC Control for an AC Load. Usually it is to control another Big Three phase contactor;

Pneumatic or Steam Valve, Solenoids-Motors. When Mounted at the end of the PCB it offers over 2kV Isolation from the Digital Circuits. The Output 230V signals NO-NC, can control Light Loads like the Coil of a Big 230V Relay also called contactor.

NO-NC SSR Plastic Box delabs

It could be Mounted on a PCB by soldering or a Plugin Base. It is better to have Crimped connections or Terminals. A very good quality spring Loaded Socket may also work but it has to be rated for many operations. Things like Nickle Alloy Plated, Beryllium Copper were the Materials Jargon. A contact resistance in the Terminals, a mismatch of alloys, electrochemical reactions, Corrosive Fumes, Brine or High Humidity can build a Loose connection into a Dangerous Sparking Contact.

Not only the Functionality of the SSR will be affected in a Sparking Contact, but a Risk of a Fire Developing. When Inflammable Materials or Volatile Liquids are Present Nearby, the risk is even greater.

Read More - Solid State Relays SSR

Control Interface to PC Ports

A computer can be used to control or automate systems. From turning lights on/off at your home to shutting down motors or heaters in industries. Speed control and PID Control too.

PC based Instrumentation is easy to implement using USB Devices and Plugin Cards for Test and Measurement.  Most instruments can communicate with PC on the GPIB interface.

Control Interface to PC Ports

USB interfaces have made such PC based Data Acquisition and Controls much easier. In the early days it was Printer Port and Serial Port. The future is for Wireless Device Networking.

Control Interface to PC Ports.

When Intelligent Devices (embedded systems) are privately and securely networked, it is called the Intranet of Things. This is like a Home-Office-Business private closed Cloud. This is ideal for Home and Infrastructure Automation and even Big Business or SMB Automation.

This can get you started too. The few examples above show an instrumentation - Logic Analyzer 'Like' interface and a relay-display driver circuit. They are examples i tried for students to try out and learn.

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

Analog devices like transistors and diodes lead to opamps and analog computing. This takes more parts but with fast devices can be real time. Then came Logic and Digital Circuits, here also big systems will take too many parts. A very Old hp Logic Analyzer instrument, could be HP1607A, had more than five large PCBs, Toggle Switches and numerous 74Fxx TTL Chips. I tried to revive it, it could not be fully restored.

Embedded Microcontroller - delabs

Then came the solution the Microprocessor. Here the entire system goes into the firmware and a Hardware Tool Set in the Microprocessor made up of Logic and Math is sequentially used to perform the same operation that would require innumerable Gates in a plain hardware digital circuit. But as it performs the operations one after another, it takes time and is defined by the CPU Clock Speed.

Embedded Microcontroller - delabs

When the External RAM and EPROM and other peripheral devices moved into the main package, MicroController were born. When more external devices merged with the MicroController. It formed a nearly complete computer, this is known as the SOC.

Thursday, June 18, 2020

Linear Circuit Design Handbook – Hank Zumbahlen

Linear Circuit Design Handbook, edited by Hank Zumbahlen (Newnes, 2008), bridges the gap between circuit component theory and practical circuit design. Effective analog circuit design requires a strong understanding of core linear devices and how they affect analog circuit design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook – Hank Zumbahlen

This book provides complete coverage of important analog devices and how to use them in designing linear circuits, and serves as a useful learning tool and reference for design engineers involved in analog and mixed-signal design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook - Hank Zumbahlen

Chapters Include

Sensors, RF/IF Circuits, Converters. Analog Filters. Power Management and …
  • Chapter 5: Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems
  • Chapter 7: Data Converter Support Circuitry
  • Chapter 11: Overvoltage Effects on Analog Integrated Circuits
  • Chapter 12: Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design Issues

Monday, June 08, 2020

SSR and Transmitter Enclosure

This is the safe enclosure for the Encapsulated Mini RTD PT100 Transmitter and was first made for the Electronic Relay with no moving parts, The Solid State Relays - SSR.

SSR Enclosure

Potted, Encapsulated in epoxy, hermetically sealed. It has a Nickel Plated Aluminum Plate insert molded. For removing heat from BTA41600. The plastic is a fire retardant high temperature grade.

The epoxy is ciba araldite, fine alumina is filler. A transparent terminal cover for safety. The BTA41600 from Thomson-CSF Semiconductor (STMicro) was Excellent for this application. The Metal tab of the device was Insulated from the Silicon inside the device. This device along with MOC3041 (motorola) made a great pair for IO control. Both devices may have had isolation in excess of 2000 V DC, if i remember right. 

Fire Retardant SSR Enclosures

In case you have other Thyristors that do need insulation use Mica for Robust Applications, Silpads for moderate heat, PolySulfone Isolators for low heat. Alumina Blocks for High Heat and Excellent Isolation. The best being thin Alumina Slabs.

Friday, June 05, 2020

Edison and his Inventions

Thomas Alva Edison also known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park" was an American inventor and businessman, He is known for inventions like phonograph or gramophone, the motion picture camera and the electric light bulb.

Thomas Alva Edison

Edison and his Inventions - Inventing Entertainment: The Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies

The Thomas A. Edison Papers - The Thomas A. Edison Papers Project, a research center at Rutgers School of Arts and Sciences, is one of the most ambitious editing projects ever undertaken by an American university.

Thursday, April 09, 2020

Digital and Embedded Systems Design

An Embedded Microcontroller or DSP system is made of Chips, Circuits and Firmware. The digital voltage levels, speed, bus width, fan out, power consumption are some factors that a designer has to keep in mind. As portable and wireless gadgets are becoming more popular, RF, Ethernet and Energy Efficient Design aspects should be studied. Power electronics and Analog Circuits knowledge is used around the system, all this is integrated to make an instrument, equipment or gadget.

Digital and Embedded Systems Design
  • 80C51 ports can sink more current but source very less, hence use a 10k pull up at all the ports or outputs.
  • Firmware must be developed in increments, tested in increments, backed up in increments, must be modular (include) reuse.
  • Tristate output, High Impedance and Floating all mean the same when it comes to IC Inputs-Outputs. It means the pin is insulated from rest of circuit in the IC. That means it will not influence the node or bus it is connected to. A DMM terminals are floating means that the hand held plastic DMM has no electrical conductive link to earth or ground.
  • You can use hyper terminal to upload code to single board computers 80C51 like in BINARY or ASCII. 
  • ASICs are for large volume production, or for products which have a long product life cycle.
  • Low volume production use FPGA or CPLD, or even flash based microcontrollers, so that all your inventory can be reused and recycled.
  • Cell phones or a LAN card ASIC is ideal as volumes are good in cell phones and for LAN cards the technology is matured. For either FPGA or ASIC's you get IP Modules or Code Libraries for many functions and applications.
  • Whatever the method keep design flexible and modular for reuse and to save cost. remember the hardware is difficult to alter, software can be altered even at customer site, flash has made this possible
  • In the future chips may be both analog and digital programmable with flash.
  • Unused CMOS inputs should have a pull up or pull down resistor, it should not float, or it oscillates.
  • Have a decoupling capacitor 104 that is 0.1uF or 100nF across the supply of every IC very near the IC supply pins.
  • A watchdog timer should be used in every microcomputer circuit like 8051 so that the system resets on hanging.
  • The reset on a microcomputer should be applied till the supply to it is stabilized, this will enable a clean start.
  • Analog ground (opamps), digital ground (CMOS) and power ground (relays and LED) should be separate, (linked at root)
  • Pull up or pull down resistors in TTL can be 10K and in CMOS 100K and in battery operated systems 1M.
  • CMOS gates and Opamps have a output drive capability of ~ 10-20mA, so when you drive a load say an LED use a series resistor to limit the current to 5mA to 10mA.
  • When the number of digital chips you use in a project goes above 20 or 30 then it is better to use PLD or CPLD types.
  • Try to use same family ICs in a circuit, like only LS or only HCT, if you mix up then you have to do a design review.
  • In a industrial environment many motors, DC drives and AC drives will be running, this will produce EMI, RFI, kickback spikes which cause microcontroller based equipment to hang. Use a watchdog timer for uC.
  • More EMI immunity by using opto couplers for all input and outputs, 4-20mA current signals for input and output and an isolated wide range SMPS.

 Making a Logical Choice in Speed-n-Power

The glue/interface Logic families are many. TTL and CMOS is what we all know. TTL is made of the trusted NPN and PNP transistors. CMOS logic is made of Mosfets/FET types. I like HCT but these days it appears ACT is better and affordable too.

CD40XX and Intersil chips were the first CMOS types of IC that became popular. The former were versatile Building Blocks and the Latter created what i would call Flexible Advanced Public ASICs.

CMOS are low power consumption and TTL are nice Speed. In intel chips you could see the transition at 8031 to 80C31, a CMOS with good speed. Now its CMOS everywhere. FET's rule.

Wednesday, April 01, 2020

Digital Count-Up Timer Gadget

Digital Timer Gadget Visual Interface - Here is is gadget GUI for Industrial Process control, WebApps. The buttons make a sound and Light up internal LED lamps. Power On-Off control, Digital Timer; Start, Reset Scroll and Select are the controls.



The advantage is that the industrial process or Home automation can be monitored and controlled on any computer including tablets which has a Browser. The plant automation or Home appliance can be regulated even as you travel back from factory to home. Or in any city from the Cyber Cafe. A Wireless Lan and Computer with Browser is all you need.

Watlow Reference and Guides

Louis Desloge Sr. founds Watlow Electric Manufacturing Company in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to manufacture electric heating elements for the shoe industry. 1922

Watlow Sensors, Processing and Heaters

'Watlow designs and manufactures industrial heaters, sensors and controllers - all of the components of a thermal system."

 SERIES F4 Ramping Controller

The SERIES F4 1⁄4 DIN industrial ramping temperature controller meets the requirements of the most demanding ramp soak controller processing applications.

This ramping temperature controller features a four line, high-definition LCD interface display for quick and easy profile programming and controller configuration.

SERIES F4 Ramping Controller

Watlow reference data provides information for amperage conversions, thermocouple types, RTD tolerances and more.

Watlow Ltd- Reference - Guides and Tutorials

Watlow is the leader in engineering and manufacturing custom commercial electric heaters. ... offer electric heating elements, industrial heaters..

Friday, February 21, 2020

How to Use Your PC to Measure Temperature

Thermocouple, RTD, Temperature monitoring is central to the majority of data acquisition systems, be it to save energy costs, increase safety, reduce testing time...whatever your reasons, you will need a device to measure the temperature - a temperature sensor.

How to Use Your PC to Measure Temperature

Thermocouples, resistance temperature devices (RTDs), thermistors and infrared thermometers are all types of temperature sensor. Which you choose depends on factors like your expected maximum and minimum temperatures, the accuracy you need and your environmental conditions.

How to Use Your PC to Measure Temperature

752-RTD: RTD Resistance Temperature Measurement, Digital I/O, Counting, Analog Output
  • Measure temperature using RTDs or Pt100 sensors, and voltage signals
  • With extra hardware monitor thermocouples and strain gauge bridges
  • Includes the powerful yet easy-to-use Windmill software for Windows: no programming required
  • Connect up to 8 USB units to one PC

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

e-Learning Resources – Physics at Exeter

Excellent Online Educational Pages at Exeter. Students and Teachers can get ideas on how to enhance and enrich the Science Education Process.

e-Learning Resources - Physics at Exeter

A Sound understanding of Physics and Chemistry is needed for stepping into “Electricity and Magnetism”. We have to move young minds into Electronics even before High School, as a part of Science itself.

e-Learning Resources – Physics at Exeter
  • Practical Electronics II and Electronics for Measurement Systems
  • Feedback and Temperature Control
  • Computer Interfaces for Instrumentation Systems
  • Troubleshooting Op-Amp Circuits
Troubleshooting Op-Amp Circuits

The ability to diagnose and cure problems in a systematic manner is an exceptionally valuable skill. In PHY2028 students are given a heap of components, a breadboard, and measuring equipment.

Feedback and Temperature Control

System Model, Types of Feedback Control, On-Off Control, Proportional+Derivative Control, Proportional+Integral+Derivative Control, Proportional+Integral Control, Third-Order Systems..

Wednesday, February 05, 2020

Multiplexed Presettable Timer with ICM7217

This was a attempt to make a Sequential Timer with ICM7217 of Intersil, even though it worked well, it was not developed beyond the prototype stage or first iteration. Only when a product is made in some numbers, the documentation and designs become clear, streamlined and seasoned.

Multiplexed Presettable Timer with ICM7217

The PCB and Circuit are not complete. It may give ideas. During this time, as far as i can remember, these were the only large CMOS devices. 8080-85 and Z80 devices consumed lot of power and needed big boards and supplies.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Revealing the Ideas behind Circuits

Electronic circuitry is more art than science. Inventing novel electronic circuits is a result of human fantasy, imagination and enthusiasm.

Revealing the Ideas behind Circuits

We treat electronic circuitry not only as a science, but also as an art. Inventing novel electronic circuits is a result of human fantasy, imagination and enthusiasm.

Practical Electronics

Fortunately, abstract electronic circuits are based on clear and simple ideas, which we may derive from our human routine. In order to really understand how circuits operate, we have first to reveal the basic ideas on which they are grounded..."

This book is part of a series on Electric Circuits:

Practical Electronics

The aim of this book is to teach you simple analogue and digital electronics at a practical level. For the in-depth theory of electronics, please read the Electronics Textbook. By the end of this book, you should be able to combine circuit elements to create more complex circuits, and have an understanding of how it works.

Aaron Cake Electronics

Aaron Cake  has many electronic circuits and other electronics information in his archive that is online since the 90s. Antique electronics and Parallel Port Programming.

Aaron Cake Electronics

Aaron Cake Electronics

The Schematic Symbol Reference, How To Solder and Desolder helped many electronic beginners in building their Projects. This was a valuable resource in those days even though it appears common today. The internet was used to genuinely share useful learning and ideas.

DMM or Digital Multi Meter

A nice DMM is the first thing you should own. Have one for High Voltage and High Energy and another for Workbench Testing.

DMM or Digital Multi Meter

Better to use external attenuators and shunts when high energy is involved. Make yourself and your instruments last for some time. Safety is first. Footwear and Gloves can help.

Tutorials on Basics and Instrumentation Electronics

Digital Multi Meter - New Year Resolutions
  1. I will not drop the DMM from a height of 4 feet.
  2. I will not Test Live Powered equipment in the Ohms Mode.
  3. I shall not Measure Mains Voltage in The Current Mode.
  4. I shall get it calibrated once a year or at least once a decade.
  5. I shall not use it in High Energy Measurements.
  6. I will try my best not to give it to my best friend.
  7. I can remember Red is Positive and Black is negative.
  8. I will wear shoes and stand on a block of wood while i test.
  9. I shall not operate the rotary range switch at high speeds.
  10. I shall replace the probes-cables-connectors on wear-tear.
  11. I shall not accidentally keep the hot-iron near the DMM or leads.
  12. I shall not keep DMM on tall table and pull it with the leads.